WATER QUIZ #1
HOW MUCH WATER DO WE USE?
Calculated in Litres
ACTIVITY (A) (B) (C)
Cooking 38 42 46
Drinking 4 6 2
Bathroom faucets 18-68 8-57 29-80
Taking a shower 33-201 66-237 57-227
Taking a Bath 51-60 72-91 95-114
Toilet Flush 11-26 41-56 30-45
Leaking Toilet 23-227 12-216 32-225
Washing Car 90-203 76-189 65-178
Washing Clothes 114 85 133
Washing Dishes 33-203 57-227 71-241
Watering Lawn 1 7-372 21- 386 14-379
WATER QUIZ #2
HOW MUCH WATER DOES IT TAKE TO PRODUCE ONE SERVING OF:
ACTIVITY (A) (B) (C)
French Fries 37 15 23
Tomatoes 19 8 11
Apples 61 30 45
Cantaloupe 170 193 140
Oranges 65 83 46
Watermelon 379 190 274
Lettuce 23 16 37
Bread 41 57 25
Rice 175 136 120
Margarine 348 221 290
Milk 230 275 246
Chicken 1475 1600 1544
Eggs (2) 515 475 431
Cola Soft Drink 17 43 38
Now lets see just how savy you are regarding water usage ~ ball park figures are fine
QUIZ # 1
QUIZ # 2
Water usage is not something we think about on a daily basis, however after seeing the astonishing figures, it only makes sense to be much more conscious about conserving water – we can make a difference!
… and yes, I know I assisted you with your answers in providing the colour coding – really felt I needed it myself!
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WHAT MUST WE DO
OUR MOST PRECIOUS RESOURCE???
The following excerpts are taken from a report, “There is No Away: Emerging Contaminants Detected in Water” which was published in the March/April, 2006 edition of Canadian Water Treatment magazine.
A report from the Canadian Institute For Environmental Law and Policy (CIELAP) released during National Pharmacists Awareness Week emphasizes the need for the Canadian government and industry to invest mores resources to research the effects of “emerging contaminants: in Canada’s waterways”. The report makes 11 recommendations about ways to reduce the amount of, and their effects on, one of Canada‘s most valuable resources.
Anne Mitchell, executive director of CIELAP, said the release of the report was planned to coincide with the industry’s national convention because there are a number of issues related to increasing environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals and personal care products. She was also careful to commend pharmacist for their efforts in keeping unused and wasted drugs out of the water.
The report, There is No Away: Emerging Contaminants Detected in Water, was written by Susan Holtz, a policy consultant to CIELAP who writes on issues related to sustainable development, water and energy. CIELAP is a not-for-profit research and educational institute dedicated to environmental law, policy analysis and reform.
In writing her report, Holtz examined the issued of “emerging contaminants” – a term that originated in a U.S. Geological Survey report. It refers to the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (collectively know as PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSl) in the Canadian water system. Holtz warns that the contaminants entering surface, ground and drinking water can have serious environmental and health consequences. One of the biggest concerns is the issue of resistance to antibiotics and hormonal imbalances due to higher concentrations of EDS. Of major concern, she says, if the increased use of antibiotics for both the human and animal population. In Canada, there were 326.2 million prescriptions filled from July 2001 to August 2002.
In farming, Holtz notes that antibiotics are no longer being used singularly to treat sick animals; they’re also being used in the form of hormones, growth promoters and for illness prevention. In her research, she determined the increased use of drugs in veterinary medicine, farming practices and aquaculture has decreased the effectiveness of the use of antibiotics. The use of hormones in both animals and humans has had a negative effect on reproduction, causing the feminization of fish, wiping out an entire talhead minnow population in Ontario. EDSs have also contributed to deformities in fish, birds and wildlife…Building on study results conducted in the U.S. and Europe, Holtz says it’s time for Canada to get more involved in the issue of contaminants in water. She says the Canadian government and Canadian organizations don’t have enough information “even to develop a strategy that can effectively” determine the effects of contaminants in water…
Here are a few YouTube videos relevant to this article:
~ Pharmaceuticals ~
~ Disposing of your Medications ~
~ Pharmaceutical Products In Our Water PSA ~
In addition to research, Holtz said a focus on human behaviour and providing more information to the public in order to encourage better choices are also important elements of social change.
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The Bay of Fundy tides are so dramatic that they are considered the highest tides in the world – a phenomenon that occurs nowhere else on the planet. 200 billion tons of water flow every single day!!!
“Bay of Fundy | Tides | New Brunswick, Canada“, uploaded Jun 4, 2009. Come to the Bay of Fundy and watch the highest tides in the world and then, six hours later at low tide, you can walk on the ocean floor. In July 2009, the Bay of Fundy was named as a finalist for the New 7 Wonders of Nature contest that ended in November 2011. It was not chosen as a wonder. The highest water level ever recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the “Saxby Gale”. The water level of 21.6 meters (70.9 feet) resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, and a spring tide.
From wikipedia.org: The Bay of Fundy… is a bay on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. Some sources believe the name “Fundy” is a corruption of the French word “Fendu”, meaning “split”, while others believe it comes from the Portuguese fondo, meaning “funnel”. The bay was also named Baie Française (French Bay) by explorer/cartographer Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts which resulted in a failed settlement attempt on St. Croix Island.
Bay of Fundy: Canada’s New7Wonders of Nature Finalist, uploaded on Aug 6, 2010
The Bay of Fundy, rivaled by Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, King Sound in Western Australia, Gulf of Khambhat in India, and the Severn Estuary in the UK, it has one of the highest vertical tidal ranges in the world. The Guinness Book of World Records (1975) declared that Burntcoat Head, Nova Scotia has the highest tides in the world:“The Natural World, Greatest Tides: The greatest tides in the world occur in the Bay of Fundy…. Burntcoat Head in the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, has the greatest mean spring range with 14.5 metres (47.5 feet) and an extreme range of 16.3 metres (53.5 feet).”
In the following YouTube video you’ll see both high and low tides featured as the camera captures the panoramic expanse – ‘An afternoon over the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. Featuring Cape Split, lighthouses, and the highest tides in the world, published on Aug 17, 2012.’
Posted in Art, Collage, Educational, Entertainment, Geography, Marine biology, Marine Biology, Nature, Nature, Nature, Oceanography, Photography, Travel, Video, Video, Water
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University of Waterloo - The Water Institute
Through collaboration among individuals engaged in water science, technology, management and governance, the Water Institute is an interdisciplinary hub that facilitates innovative research, education and training. The Institute’s activities focus on the sustainable use and management of water resources to support healthy and prosperous communities and ecosystems at the national and international scale. Throughout its history, the University of Waterloo has demonstrated a significant and consistent commitment to education and research on water-related topics and has garnered international acclaim for its innovative solutions to society’s water problems.
Launch of the The Water Institute’s External Partners Program
With over 125 faculty members and 400 graduate students, distributed over all six faculties, the University of Waterloo has one of the largest and most diverse water research programs in Canada. Established in 2009 the Water Institute supports and encourages greater interdisciplinarity among our programs. An important element in the strategy to achieve our goals is to encourage much closer association between the University and external organizations, including the private sector, government, civil society and other research facilities.
Please join us for this year’s Water Institute’s Research Symposium to be held May 2, 2013 at the University of Waterloo. The 2013 symposium will showcase the breadth of Waterloo’s water research and provide an opportunity for organizations to interact with researchers and students.
Posted in Art, Collage, Conservation, Educational, Endangered resources, Environment, Environmental concerns, Innovative technology, Nature, Science and Technology, Water, Water conservation
Tagged 2013, Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, BNP Paribas, Buckingham, Canada, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, climate, Colleges and Universities, communities and ecosystems, Cumberland, ecosystems, education, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, External Partners Program, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Graduate school, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, Navan, North Gower, Ontario, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, research, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, science, South Mountain, St. Albert, The Water Institute, University of Waterloo, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, water institute, Water Institute’s Research Symposium to be held May 2, water resources, water science, water science technology, water.uwaterloo.ca, Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario
Nature Works LLC, a solely-independent division of Cargill, is the first company in the world to produce packaging that is 100 per cent compostable.
Made entirely from field corn, NatureWorks PLA is a food packaging resin that uses an annually renewable resource that doesn’t compromise the earth’s’ ability to meet the needs of tomorrow.”
It’s like using food to carry your food – or your water – as is the case with BIOTA Spring Water. YouTube video: HowStuffWorks Show: Episode 1: Corn Plastic, This clip from the HowStuffWorks show on the Discovery Channel discusses the use of corn to make plastic. Plastic made from corn is biodegradable, carbon-neutral and edible. Could corn plastic revolutionize the plastics industry?
The items shown in the collage below are just a very few of the many products that are made from this corn resin - amazing! YouTube video: Corn to Plastics, – Corn is showing up in places you would have never expected. A company in Columbus is making plastic film from corn. Our Ohio visits Plastic Suppliers to learn more about this new technology.
The technological process of producing the plastic is essentially the same as producing petroleum-based plastic. “Instead of oil-based carbon, we start with a sugar-based carbon from corn,” said Tucker. The technology is especially important to the bottled water industry in the shadow of a recent study by William Shotyk of Heidelberg University in Germany, whose research on bottled mineral water shows that the plastic containers release a deadly toxin called antimony into the water the longer it is stored.
“The NatureWorks bottle is what is referred to as a ‘barefoot resin,’” said Tucker. “There’s nothing to leach and the bottle doesn’t change the makeup of the water.” But just because the bottle is made from food doesn’t mean you can eat it. BIOTA cautions on its website, under frequently asked questions, that because the bottle is a plastic product, it’s not recommended that the containers be consumed.
BIOTA spring water bottle, uploaded on Jul 6, 2007 – the environmentally friendly packaging.
Here’s an interesting footnote to wrap up this blog: However the usage of PLA corn bottle involves some drawbacks also. It is obvious that the production of PLA corn bottle or any other bio plastic would necessarily involve devoting vast acres of land for producing crops used in the manufacture of plastic products rather than food. It cannot be overlooked that plants also use energy in the form of fuel, water and other resources. Besides, transportation also adds up to a lot of fuel consumption. Being disposable they add to the waste generated and cannot take the place of reusable products which are more environmentally friendly. http://www.innovateus.net/content/what-pla-corn-bottle
IMPORTANT TO NOTE: “The technology is especially important to the bottled water industry in the shadow of a recent study by William Shotyk of Heidelberg University in Germany, whose research on bottled mineral water shows that the plastic containers release a deadly toxin called antimony into the water the longer it is stored.” This is another very important reason for everyone to realize the dangers of bottled water – not only to our health, but to our precious environment. It would be a very wise investment for you to consider a Reverse Osmosis water treatment system, such as the Rainsoft Reverse Osmosis system offered by us.
Eternally Pure Water Systems, Inc.
5450 Canotek Road, Unit 66-67
Ottawa, ON K1J 9G5
Mon. – Fri. 9:00 – 5:30
GUESS WHAT I’M HAVING
FOR DINNER TONIGHT?
Posted in Art, Collage, Educational, Environment, Environmental concerns, Free Water Analysis, Health Benefits, Health Concerns, Household hints, Innovative technology, Product descriptions, Reverse Osmosis Water Systems, Science and Technology, Video, Water
Tagged Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, bottled water, Buckingham, Business, Cargill, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cumberland, Discovery Channel, environment, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Germany, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Heidelberg University, HowStuffWorks, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, NatureWorks, Navan, North Gower, Ohio, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Plastic, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, South Mountain, St. Albert, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, YouTube
FATHOMS DEEP ~ Protecting the Seafloor
“The future is in the hands of those who explore… and from all the beauty they discover while crossing perpetually receding frontiers, they develop for nature and humankind an infinite love.” ~ Jacques Cousteau
We have a great opportunity to watch an incredible video created by Alexandra Cousteau – YouTube Sep 13, 2012. I hope you find this to be as educational and entertaining as I did.
In 2010 and 2011 Oceana partnered with SeaLife Conservation and their eco-research sailboat, the Derek M. Baylis, and the Monterey Bay Sanctuary to explore and document Monterey Bay and other incredible West Coast ocean habitats with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and camera ~ “FATHOMS DEEP – Protecting the Seafloor”, narrated by Alexandra Cousteau.
“Mankind has had an affinity for the ocean since our earliest beginnings. Near or far, the ocean draws us in. The longer you stare at the ocean, the more you take in its wonder. The deeper you go, the more you appreciate its complexity. Landing on the soft substrata of the sea floor is like arriving on another planet. It appears flat and barren, but in fact, it is teeming with life.”
Wikipedia web site has a lengthy bio on Alexandra Phillipe Cousteau, the granddaughter of world famous French explorer and filmmaker Jacques-Yves Cousteau: “A member of the third generation of the Cousteau family to devote their lives to exploring and explaining the natural world, Cousteau first went on expedition with her father, Philippe Cousteau, when she was four months old, and learned to scuba dive with her grandfather, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, when she was seven. She grew up traveling the globe, developed a passion for adventure and learned firsthand the value of conserving the natural world. Of her father and grandfather, Cousteau says, “The best example they gave me was the importance of living a life of consequence, value, and meaning. I honor their memories by creating a legacy of my own in speaking out for the preservation of our blue planet and all its waters.”
Learn more about the expedition and adventure @ oceana.org
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Exploring Oceans: Overview, video by National Geographic, Uploaded on Mar 16, 2009. The ocean produces 70 percent of the Earth’s oxygen and drives our weather and the chemistry of the planet. Most of the creatures on Earth live in the sea. But our knowledge of the ocean is far outstripped by our impact on it.
Researchers have compiled a database of images and data collected from the Antarctic seafloor during various expeditions to the frozen continent… Many of the images in the collection were taken at the bottom of the Weddell Sea, the large bay nestled in the frozen continent’s coast from the Antarctic Peninsula east to the Coats Land region.
Some examples of the strange creatures that thrive on the bottom of the chilly ocean surrounding Antarctica - photo credits: Julian Gutt, Alfred Wegener Institute:
Shell-less Snail ~ Clione (Clione limacina), is a shell-less snail known as the Sea Butterfly. This snail is also known as the Sea Angel that swims in the shallow waters beneath Arctic ice.
Antarctic Ice Fish ~ Even in the chilliest water, life can thrive. Ice fish, like the one seen here, have a natural antifreeze chemical in their blood and body fluids that allow them to survive frigid water temperatures.
This is an invasive king crab (Neolithodes yaldwyni) from the Antarctic shelf waters.
These predatory king crabs will cause a major reduction on seafloor biodiversity as they invade Antarctic habitats.
Ice Fish ~ This Antarctic fish… has no red blood cells or red blood pigments. This makes the fish’s blood thinner, saving energy that would otherwise be needed to pump the blood around the body.
This picture shows hydrocorals also known as sea fans – various colonial marine hydrozoans of the order Hydrocorallinae, having a limestone skeleton and thus resembling the true corals.
Cold Crustacean ~ This shy-looking critter is an inhabitant of Antarctica – first found during the research vessel Polarstern’s ANTXXIII-8 cruise. This the arthropod is about 1 inch long and can be found near Antarctica’s Elephant Island.
The Pink Lady ~ Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) plays a key role in the food webs of the South Ocean. In fact, these tiny crustaceans have developed many biological rhythms that are closely connected to large seasonal changes in their environment.
Big Red Shrimp ~ A giant Antarctic amphipod measuring 4 inches (100 mm) long. These red shrimp can be found off the Antarctic Peninsula.
Sea Pig ~There are actually several different genera and species of “sea pigs” (members of the family Elpidiidae) Not all of them live in the deep-sea, some of them live in Antarctic waters.
Antarctica: The Hunt for Killer CApr 5, 2013 rabs, published on
… For millions of years, the animals of the Antarctic sea floor have evolved in splendid isolation, with essentially no predation pressure from the crabs, sharks, and bony fish that control marine communities everywhere else in the world…Antarctica: The Hunt for Killer Crabs documents a voyage of scientists from around the world to try to get a glimpse of what could be a new killer on the sea bottom. Join them on their journey to find this new predator and see what may lie ahead for the animals that already live there.
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The following excerpts are taken from: FIRE AND ICE: What happens when you tamper with ice? By Steven Willard – Canadian Water Treatment magazine, Mar/Apr edition, 2006.
Ottawa’s Ice Dam Busters – Human Planet, Rivers, Preview – BBC One -uploaded on Feb 24, 2011 When the frozen river starts to melt and large ice blocks start forming a dam, it’s time for extreme measures to avoid flooding in the Canadian capital.
Ice is a dangerous substance. History is filled with examples of the destructive power of ice, from glaciers of pre-history to the modern sinking of an unsinkable ocean liner… Often the destruction from ice can be so severe that action must be taken to prevent damage. The city of Ottawa did just this thing. Worried that the ice might form a dam and back up the spring run-off which would then lead to flooding of low lying areas, the city had a program in the spring of the year to cut up ice on the Ottawa River and blast it in to manageable pieces to prevent a build up of ice in the river; a program that eventually brought the City of Ottawa to Court in 1997.
You’ll realize the danger in ice blasting in the following YouTube video, “Winter Ice Break-up at Rideau Falls, Ottawa, Canada“. Watch at 3:30 into the video to see the blasting take place – unbelievable that they’d blast so close to the bridge where people are standing and a van is damaged by the flying ice!!!
Every spring since 1887 the city has blasted the ice of the Rideau and Ottawa rivers into small chunks so that they could be flushed easily and safely down the Ottawa River before the ice could pile up and act as a dam, above which flooding would inevitably happen. Downstream from Ottawa, Rideau Falls Generating Partnership operated a hydro-electric dam at the base of the Rideau Falls. In 1992, the City of Ottawa conducted their usual ice removal program and, as a result, chuckes of ice floated down the Ottawa river, over the Rideau Falls, landed at the base of the falls and piled up. The ice piles up as high as the drop of the Rideau Falls. In essence an ice dam had been created. The water built up behind this dam and quickly flooded the generating station causing considerable damage to the station and it ceased to generate power for some months. In 1996, the exact same events occurred with more damage to the station. Rideau Falls Generating Station sued the City for damages, and won.
On the face of it, this seems unfair. The City of Ottawa had done this work every spring for many years to prevent people from being flooded from their homes. The city could not control the pile-up of ice at the bottom of the Falls, which the Court even called “unnatural.” But riparian law is very strict: if you tamper with the natural flow of water (and ice for that matter), then you will be responsible tor damages created by your actions… The city also argued that the Ontario Municipal Act allowed a municipality the right to pas a by-law to control flooding. The court held that the by-law passed by the city would not relieve the city from responsibility for its actions. Simply put, the Municipal Act did not confer on the city a right to damage property. This case stands for a number of points of law. It confirms that the owner of riparian land has a right to the natural flow of water. Anyone who tampers with that natural flow needs to take actions to prevent damage, even to the extent of preparing for extraordinary situations. And finally, downstream lands cannot be sacrificed to save upstream lands.
The following shows just how destructive ice flows on the Rideau River can be: YouTube video, ‘Ice Flow Takes Out Dock – Rideau River’ Uploaded on Feb 23, 2009 ~ “An ice flow took out the end of our dock on the Rideau River near Ottawa, Ontario Canada. The dock was 78 feet long; it’s much shorter now! “
Posted in events, Educational, Water, Video, Outdoor, Science and Technology, History, Art, Collage, River, Environment, Ice Blasting, Falls
Tagged Ottawa East, Ottawa West, Ottawa South, Canada, Ottawa, Ottawa River, YouTube, Orleans, Kanata, Cumberland, Greely, Carp, Navan, Russell, Hammond, Manotick, Metcalfe, Richmond, Osgoode, Sarsfield, Limoges, Hawkesbury, casselman, Gatineau, Luskville, Chelsea, Carleton Place, South Mountain, Blackburn Hamlet, Vernon, Aylmer, Quyon, Buckingham, Barrhaven, North Gower, St. Albert, Chrysler, Bearbrook, Vars, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Almonte, Vanier, Munster, Marathon, Fitzroy Harbour, Clarence Creek, Rideau River, Rideau Falls, OTTAWA - City, Ice dam, tampering with ice, Steven Willard, Canadian Water Treatment magazine
The following excerpts are taken from Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine’s Feb. 2007 article – ‘The Basics of Ion Exchange and Water Chemistry’, by C. F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud, CEO and Technical Director of Systematix Company
Introduction: Look around: thousands of heavenly bodies in the night sky (comprising a mere fraction of one percent of the known universe), hundreds of cities, millions of houses filled with tens of millions of people. It is somewhat amazing to realize that all of it – every single thing is made up of only three components: electrons, protons and neutrons. Each grouping of these components forms a unique Structure we call an element. There are barely 100 naturally occurring elements here on Earth or in stellar space and their collective study is called chemistry. Each compound (water, air, steel, rubber) has its own chemistry. We can predict the properties of most things by studying the unique make up of their components. The chemistry of water is basic but, nonetheless, it is still chemistry. Some people shy away from trying to understand this subject because they feel it’s over their heads. Understanding the fundamentals of chemistry, however, is necessary in order to grasp the full breadth of how certain aspects of water filtration work – particularly ion exchange… The building blocks: In the worlds around us, there are barely 100 elements that occur naturally and, by definition, they are all separate and distinct from one another. Sodium, calcium, sulfur and oxygen are all elements. Elements are made up of a balanced number of positively and negatively charged particles called protons (+) and electrons (-), which, along with neutrons (which are neutral), form an atom of that element. The atom was first theorized by Democritus in the 5th century BC and derives from the Greek word for ‘un-cutable’. It is the smallest particle still identifiable as having the properties of the element. Modern science finally accepted this theory but not until the development of nuclear weapons in the 1940s…
Recap: By way of a quick summary, all matter is made up of elements (which are made up of electrons (–), protons (+) and neutrons (=). When elements combine, they form compounds. When compounds combine, they can form new compounds or mixtures. Acids and bases neutralize each other to form salts (and water). When salts are dissolved in water, they separate into cations (+) and anions (–) which carry charges (and are, therefore, attracted to other charged substances such as ion exchange resins). Water (H2O) does not ionize as H+ and O– –. Instead, it becomes H+ and OH– (called hydrogen and hydroxyl). These two ions are the backbone of the ion exchange demineralizer reaction (see Reaction 5). In reality, when salts are dissolved in water, they are no longer salts and they are no longer associated with their original partners. It is sort of like a junior high dance. It doesn’t matter who you came in with or with whom you go home, while you are on the dance floor, you’re on your own. Thus, if we add sodium carbonate and calcium chloride to water, we produce six different ions: Ca++ (calcium), Na+ (sodium), Cl– (chloride) and CO3 – (carbonate) plus the H+ and OH–. Each ion is free to associate with whatever it feels the most strongly attracted… Introduction to ion exchange: In the above case, the ‘unused’ part of the exchange reaction remains in the water and raises the total dissolved solids (TDS—that would be the Na and the Cl ions). But, what if we could anchor the reactive ions to a solid matrix so we didn’t have to filter them out and their partners would not go into solution to add to the TDS? That is exactly what ion exchange resin does. Ion exchange resins are plastic beads with a built-in reactive partner and an exchangeable ‘soluble’ partner. While the exchangeable partner is free to jump on and off the bead, the fixed reactive partner remains attached. In the case of a softening exchange resin, the partners are sodium (Na+ free to jump) an sulfonate (HSO3– which is fixed). When a calcium salt is introduced (as hard water), the calcium replaces the sodium on the bead and sodium replaces the calcium in the water (on a one-for-one equivalent basis) and there is no increase in TDS and no further filtration needed. The reason this reaction takes place is because the calcium from the hardness has a higher attraction (divalent) to the exchange resin than does the sodium (monovalent). This is known as ion selectivity and is the backbone of the ion exchange process. As shown by Reaction 5, certain elements or compounds in water can be made to undergo specific selec- tive reactions and these reactions are predictable to some degree according to the element’s family association in the Periodic Table. Divalent ions (those with a double positive charge) such as calcium and magnesium, will react with soap and cause ‘bathtub ring.’ They will also react with the carbonate ion to form scale in pipes and heaters. Although we could precipitate these salts with the addition of carbonate ions (see Reaction 6), we have no easy way to remove the resulting solid except in an industrial setting with large tankage. With ion exchange resins, only the exchangeable ion is soluble or free to move. The counter ion, which is the resin bead itself, is not. This makes the separation after the exchange very easy. In the case of a softener, the resin has an exchangeable Na+. The hardness (Ca++ and Mg++) combined with the resin forms a very strong bond. The water, minus the hardness, passes on through because the resin is retained in the exchange column. Sodium replaces the hardness on an equivalent basis. This means that it will take two sodium ions from the exchange bead to replace a single calcium or magnesium ion. However, on a ppm as CaCO3 basis, this is a one-for-one exchange with no change in TDS (more on this in Part 2)… Conclusion: The Periodic Table of the Elements places all elements into families that help us predict properties and determine similarities. We have shown that there is a preferred coupling of certain elements to form reactions (such as CaCO3 precipitation) that lead us to methods of removing those elements from water. This can be done either selectively (such as in softening) or completely (as in demineralization) utilizing ion exchange resins.
Common elements found in tap water
Aluminum, Calcium, Carbon, Chloride, Fluoride, Iron
Magnesium, Manganese, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Potassium
Silica, Sodium, Sulfur
Posted in Educational, Water, Physical Properties, H2O Chemical Formula, Science and Technology, Environment
Tagged environment, drinking water, Ottawa East, Ottawa West, Ottawa South, Ottawa, Business, Orleans, Kanata, Cumberland, Greely, Carp, Navan, Russell, Hammond, Manotick, Metcalfe, hard water, science, Richmond, Osgoode, Sarsfield, climate, Limoges, Hawkesbury, casselman, Gatineau, Luskville, Chelsea, Carleton Place, South Mountain, Blackburn Hamlet, Vernon, Aylmer, Quyon, Buckingham, Barrhaven, North Gower, St. Albert, Chrysler, Bearbrook, Vars, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Almonte, Vanier, Munster, Marathon, Fitzroy Harbour, Clarence Creek, Ion exchange, Periodic Table, Sodium, Ion-exchange resin, Chemistry, Potassium, Democritus, Ion, electrons protons and neutrons, protons and neutrons, protons and electrons, fundamentals of chemistry
The following excerpts are taken from WaterCanada’s magazine article, “Breaking the Ice” – The trouble with implementing national wastewater standards in our country’s coldest climates, by Rob Jamieson and Wendy Krkosek
Managing sewage in Canada’s Arctic communities is very different than in the more populated southern regions of Canada. Arctic communities tend to have small populations of 100 to 2,000 people and many can only be accessed by air or by sea during the brief summer season. The cold climate and permafrost conditions generally prevent the use of underground pipes for transporting sewage from homes and buildings to a centralized sewage treatment plant. Therefore, people living in the Arctic often have to rely on a trucked system for water delivery and wastewater collection. Homes and other buildings are often equipped with two tanks: one for potable water, the other for wastewater. Drinking water deliveries and wastewater collection are usually conducted around every one to two days.
[Here is a very short YouTube video featuring the Sewage Lagoon and Windmills at Hooper Bay, Alaska, uploaded on Mar 18, 2010 ~ Temps +8F and 15 kt wind. 360 deg panorama of sewage lagoon and windmills, cemetery, and parts of Old Town.]
In the majority of communities in the Canadian Arctic, the collected sewage is then transported to lagoons (or waste stabilization ponds) located on the outskirts of town. The lagoons are typically designed to hold a full year’s worth of sewage and are frozen for approximately nine months of the year. The lagoon contents thaw during the short summer season, which is approximately two to three months long. At the end of the summer, around early September, the water in the lagoon is pumped out into a natural tundra wetland, or directly into a lake, a river, or the ocean… The main advantages of these types of systems, and the reasons why they are used in small Arctic communities, are they are simple to operate and maintain, do not require energy inputs, and do not use mechanical equipment that would be susceptible to malfunction and failure in extreme cold climates. The problem, however, is that while these types of treatment systems have been well studied and tested in temperature climates, very little research has been conducted on how they perform in extreme arctic climates.
The impact of new regulations Environment Canada has recently implemented new Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER). The regulations include National Performance Standards (NPS) for municipal wastewater facilities, and specific timelines for upgrading facilities based on an environmental risk assessment framework. However, Environment Canada has specifically acknowledged the challenges that remote, northern communities will face in complying with the WSER. It was recognized that little information exists on the performance of wastewater systems operating in Canada’s far north, and the risk they pose to human and environmental health (CCME, 2009). Therefore, the regulations do not immediately apply to wastewater systems located in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and north of the 54th parallel in the provinces of Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. A five-year grace period (ending in 2014) was provided to conduct research on northern wastewater system performance, and to propose alternative effluent quality guidelines….
In response to the impending federal wastewater regulations and the need to identify cost-effective approaches for sewage management, the Government of Nunavut and Dalhousie University have developed a long-term research program focused on municipal wastewater management in Nunavut. The goals of the five-year project, currently in its third year, are to characterize the performance of existing lagoon and wetland wastewater treatment systems in Nunavut, assess the risks these systems pose to both human and environmental health, and identify and test strategies for improving the performance of passive treatment systems in Arctic climates. This work is also meant to provide the information needed to develop appropriate wastewater treatment standards for northern regions…
To address this issue, Dalhousie University has collaborated with the Nunavut Research Institute to establish a water quality laboratory in Iqaluit. The lab is equipped to analyze for all primary wastewater parameters, and is also used to provide training to students enrolled in the VThe research conducted to date has produced some very interesting results. The unique summer arctic climate, where some communities receive up to 24 hours of sunlight, can have a number of advantages.
For example, extended daylight can stimulate a tremendous amount of algae growth in sewage treatment lagoons. These algae populations are capable of adding considerable amounts of oxygen to the lagoons through photosynthesis, which helps facilitate biological treatment processes. Trying to understand and harness the natural processes that occur within lagoons and tundra wetlands will be key to predicting and optimizing the performance of these systems.
As these types of “open” treatment systems are heavily influenced by environmental factors such as ambient temperature and solar radiation, it will also be important to understand how their performance may be influenced by climate change. Initial findings also indicate that the characteristics of the water bodies which receive the treated effluent must be carefully considered in the establishment of appropriate treatment standards for the Arctic.
Interesting factoid for you all–did you know Canada is has more kilometers in distance North-South than East-West…..
Posted in Environmental concerns, Educational, Water, Video, Outdoor, Science and Technology, Art, Collage, Nature, Conservation
Tagged environment, Ottawa East, Ottawa West, Ottawa South, Canada, Ottawa, Arctic, YouTube, nature, Orleans, Kanata, Cumberland, Greely, Carp, Navan, Russell, Hammond, Manotick, Metcalfe, science, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Richmond, Osgoode, Sarsfield, climate, Limoges, Hawkesbury, casselman, Gatineau, Luskville, Chelsea, Sewage treatment, Wastewater, WaterCanada magazine, Carleton Place, South Mountain, Blackburn Hamlet, Vernon, Aylmer, Quyon, Buckingham, Barrhaven, North Gower, St. Albert, Chrysler, Bearbrook, Vars, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Almonte, Vanier, Munster, Marathon, Fitzroy Harbour, Clarence Creek, Dalhousie University, Iqaluit, Canadian Arctoc wasteland, wasterwater treatment, Hooper Bay Alaska, sewage lagoon, Canadian Arctic sewage lagoons, sewage treatment plant, lagoon contents