Category Archives: Water

Threatened species saved by constructed wetlands in Sweden

WETLANDS SAVE WILDLIFE


This article is from Science News Jan. 21, 2014 “Constructed Wetlands Save Frogs, Birds Threatened With Extinction”

SWEDENOver the last few decades, several thousands of wetlands have been constructed in Sweden in agricultural landscapes. The primary reason is that the wetlands prevent a surfeit of nutrients from reaching our oceans and lakes. A study from Halmstad University shows, in addition, that wetlands haveRED LIST contributed to saving several frog and bird species from the “Red List” – a list that shows which species are at risk of dying out in Sweden. In the latest update, five of the nine red-listed bird species that breed in wetlands -

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

including the little grebe and the little ringed plover could be taken off the list. Yet another bird species was moved to a lower threat category. As regards batrachians, four species-among them the European tree frog-have been taken off the list, and two species have been moved to a lower threat category.
Great effect on biological diversity
Definition of eutrophication: the process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients (as phosphates) that stimulate the growth of aquatic plant life usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen.

WEISNER“An important objective in constructing wetlands is reducing eutrophication – over-fertilization. It’s surprisingly positive that they’ve also had such a great directHALMSTAD U SWEDEN effect on biological diversity,” says Stefan Weisner, Professor of Biology specialising in environmental science at Halmstad University.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the amount of wetlands in Sweden decreased drastically: almost all original wetlands in agricultural areas have disappeared through drainage and land reclamation. This has affected many of the plants and animals that depend on these types of environments.
An inexpensive way to reduce eutrophication

EUTROPHICATION

Over the last 15 years, nearly 3,000 wetland areas have been constructed in agricultural landscapes around Sweden. Farmers SWEDISH AGRICULTURE LOGOhave the possibility of receiving economic support for this from sources such as the Swedish Board of Agriculture. The primary reason is because wetlands catch the surfeit of nutrients from agriculture such as nitrogen and phosphorus-substances that would otherwise have leaked out into the seas and lakes and contributed to eutrophication.IMAGE6
The study shows that creation of wetlands is a cost-effective to catch the nutrients.
“It’s a very effective way of purifying the water.

TREATMENT PLANTIt’s less expensive than constructing treatment plants, and in addition it contributes to biological diversity,” Prof Weisner says.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01 /140121092911.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate%2Fwater+%28Water+Conservation+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Expertsvar.
Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.
Journal Reference:
John A. Strand, Stefan E.B. Weisner. Effects of wetland construction on nitrogen transport and species richness in the agricultural landscape—Experiences from Sweden. Ecological Engineering, 2013; 56: 14 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.087

Designing water reclaiming and recycling programs – green technology

ROOFTOP GARDEN

This article, ‘Function and Beauty – A new reality for watershapes’, by Aviram Müller, appeared in the Jan/Feb issue of WaterCanada magazine.

Please note that I’ve added a YouTube video, uploaded Sept. 15, 2010 by Aviram Muller, regarding the BioReSys – Bionic Regeneration Systems which I definitely recommend – should be a must for our current school curriculum.  This video is the first of five parts which you can access after watching Part 1.

In recent centuries , designers have done a tremendous job of figuring out how water looks and sounds. As environmental concerns become increasingly important, however, we’re being challenged to think differently about water – how it affects us physically and the essential role it plays in maintaining a healthy world.
2ND PARAAs a species, we’ve done a great deal to squander water as an asset, whether by contaminating and otherwise polluting natural bodies of water or by treating pools and other watershapes with harsh chemicals. Isn’t it ironic that spas, which exist primarily so we can take advantage of their healthful benefits, are commonly sanitized with chlorine or other powerful oxidizers that may be hazardous to our health?
3RD PARAIn trying to use water to achieve healthful or recreational ends, we have in fact turned away from its natural value and benefits. And it’s not just spas or swimming pools—even with decorative, purely visual water features such as fountains, we have for years turned our backs on natural processes while
pursuing our aesthetic goals.
Point of crisis
Today’s culmination of economic and environmental crises presents an amazing opportunity for watershapers to step back and set the foundations for a fresh, sustainable direction.
5TH PARAWhen water features emerged in Classical times, Islamic and later European societies, they introduced fountains as the public source for potable water. It was only after centuries of performing this public function that fountains moved decisively away from their original purpose and became more or less purely decorative.

6TH PARAThe time has come for water feature to come full circle. Not only must water features be beautiful and soothing, but henceforth, they must be functional, purposeful in the reclamation and decontamination of water. And if water features as part of water management also remediate existing environmental damage or contribute to the cooling of interior spaces, even better.
Increased scope
7TH PARAIn recent years, the typical water feature (fountain, pool, spa, pond or stream) has essentially been a standalone unit in which water is circulated, filtered and treated in a closed loop. As such, these features have very little (if anything at all) to do with the overall performance of adjacent buildings or spaces.
8TH PARABut water features could be part of a much larger system. Water could be reclaimed from roofs and other impermeable surfaces, moved into storage in various cisterns or reservoirs and then treated biologically in planted pond or wetland areas or used as part of a water feature. Then, this same water can be used for irrigation, firefighting, air conditioning or the cooling of manufacturing, industrial and power-generating systems.
Some of the pioneering work has already been done. What may seem revolutionary to some in North America is, in fact, already widely practiced in Europe and has been part of the designer approach for more than 20 years. In some places, natural resources and environments are so restricted by population density that designers have already moved in this direction out of necessity.
For years, they’ve dealt with acid rain, groundwater contamination and rivers so polluted that swimming in them has become hazardous or impossible. Under those constraints, system designers think differently about how they manage, reclaim and reuse water.
Using biology
In North America, we have been taught that water can only be effectively treated through use of chemicals and mechanical filtration. But in Europe, the effluent from car washes, water discharged from nuclear power plants, cooling water from large office buildings, and even the water that emerges from zoological exhibits are treated biologically. In addition, the European experience has shown that biological filtration using specific types of plants can help remediate contaminated water by removing heavy metals and organic compounds introduced into water supplies via the fertilizers used by agricultural or industrial operations.
Whether they take the form of ponds with wetland areas and planted floating islands or of green roofs that bring park like features to urban settings, biological systems can be beautiful. Once humdrum settings, such as retention basins, are now accented with plants, pathways, docks, floating fountains, floating islands and diverse varieties of wildlife.
Specific measures
PARA 14Currently, there are no classifications or criteria in the LEED certification program referring specifically to water feature designs. The Water Efficiency category, however, emphasizes reducing the use of potable water supplies and thus presents several opportunities for creative applications.
PARA 15Already, according to current LEED provisions, a green roof can be used to capture rainwater. Once captured, the water is treatment by flowing either to a gravel-based wetlands zone/retention basin or into a body of water that contains floating islands and myriad plants that take up contaminants.
PARA 16When water exits these basins, no matter its condition, it can be used for water features, irrigation, or numerous other reasons. Alternatively, this water can be channeled into an “infiltration” basin where water is injected into the ground to help recharge aquifers. This can be helpful in areas where there are issues with seawater intrusion or underground plumes of pollution.
PARA 17Some LEED projects seek designs that involve remediation of environmentally damaged areas. Indeed, contaminated soil can be helped by properly designed water management – for instance, designs can include choosing plants specifically meant to biologically treat water containing certain contaminants.
Active participation
In sizing up the LEED point potential of water features, it’s important to recognize that the water features will help earn credits relative to specific situations. The LEED point system and the relative value a “functional” water feature can bring opens the discussion of the role the designer can play in the final design of commercial complexes and residential developments.
PARA 20  Traditionally, designers in their more aesthetic or recreational roles are among the last consulted in a project. Until recently, in fact, fountains, swimming pools, spas, ponds, cascades or interactive water features have been seen as separate and divorced from everything else on site.
LAST PARAWith this new green philosophy, designers are becoming integral participants in the process of designing water reclaiming and recycling programs, and providing beauty with function.

MULLERAviram Müller is the founder of Karajaal, a Quebec-based company that designs and engineers distinct and interactive venues using water, lighting effects, fountains and pools.
A graduate of Frankfurt University, Aviram has dedicated 25 years to the creation and development of water-based art. Aviram is recognized by his peers as an artist and sculptor with a strong engineering and technical foundation.

 

Devastating effect on Canada’s lakes caused by acid rain

BLAME IT ON THE RAINThe following article, “Blame it on the Rain” appeared in the Jan/Feb 2010 issue of Watercanada magazine, written by Rebecca Taggart.

Acid rain leaves its mark in Canada’s freshwater lakes:

Calcium deficiency is commonly  considered an ailment of the elderly. However, many of Canada’s freshwater lakes are now being diagnosed with a similar condition.
Calcium levels in many of Canada’s freshwater lakes are dropping. Just as it’s necessary for a healthy human body, calcium is also essential for supporting life in aquatic ecosystems. Environment Canada scientists are involved in collaborative research that sheds light on a pattern of calcium loss in our small lakes and wetlands. For almost 30 years, samples were collected from lakes across southeastern Canada to monitor chemical levels in ecosystems sensitive to acid rain. In an assessment of chemical changes from 770 Ontario lakes, researchers noticed a troubling pattern of declining calcium.

MAKING A RECOVERY:  When rain falls on the land or drainage basin surrounding a lake, it washes a small amount of calcium from the soil and drains it into the lake. This natural process has occurred over thousands of years, and accounts for most of the calcium found in lakes.
Acid rain speeds up this process by washing calcium from the soil and into lakes at a much faster rate than regular rain.
BLAME IT ON THE RAIN
Acid rain also increases the acidity of lake waters, which can negatively affect the aquatic species that rely on the lake to survive. Acid rain peaked during the 1970s and 1980s because of increased urban and industrial development throughout eastern North America. Since then, aggressive environmental policies have reduced the harmful emissions that cause acid rain, and have succeeded in reducing its occurrence.

However, those decades of faster calcium leaching due to acid rain have depleted the natural stock of calcium found in the soil of land in lake drainage basins. Now that we are seeing less acid rain, calcium concentrations in some lakes are declining, perhaps to levels that are lower than those before acid rain became a problem.
This means that there may not be enough calcium available for some aquatic species to survive in these lakes. Low calcium levels may also slow the biological recovery of lakes from the higher acidity levels that were also caused by acid rain.
GETTING TO THE CORE OF OUR LAKES: To demonstrate the effects of this problem, research scientists studied Daphnia, a crustacean that lab studies have shown is strongly dependent on sufficient calcium concentrations in lakes.
BLAME IT ON THE RAIN2
Researchers conducted a paleolimnological survey, which involves using a coring device to remove a sample of the lake’s sediment floor. Lying within these sediments are remains of plants and animals that have been preserved over time.

BLAME IT ON THE RAIN3
Based on an analysis of lake sediment cores, scientists found that Daphnia began to decline in the 1970s, showing a strong link with measured declines in lake calcium levels.
Declines in Daphnia and other calcium rich foods have the potential to threaten many other species. Daphnia graze on algae, which regulates their presence in a lake. This affects other animals in the food chain such as fish and birds.

BLAME IT ON THE RAIN1
The results of this research teach an important lesson about the role that each creature plays in an ecosystem. Small lakes and wetlands provide important habitat for many species. The individual roles these species play in our ecosystems demonstrate the interconnectedness of all life forms and illustrate the potential for habitat pollution and other impacts to have complex consequences for ecosystems. WC Rebecca Taggart is with Environment Canada.

Here’s a link to a related and more in-depth article, “Acid rain legacy hurting lakes”
ONTARIO'S PLASTIC LAKE
http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2008/11/28/acid_rain_legacy_hurting_lakes.html

SUCCESS IN BATTLE WITH NESTLE OVER WATER RIGHTS!

PARLIAMENT

NESTLE RED X“Battle with Nestle over water affects Pontiac” – Published in The LowDown Online, by William Amos and Carissa Wong November 27, 2013

WATER CHART

Everyone needs water. Life exists because of it. In Canada, we expect water to be everywhere, accessible and clean. But the reality is that less than one per cent of the world’s freshwater is readily accessible for direct human use.

ONTARO MAPWe also expect our governments to protect this resource and put a community’s need for drinking water ahead of a corporation’s desire to bottle and sell water for profit. But sometimes, governmental priorities get confused, as they did recently in Ontario.

Every day, Ontario permits Nestle Canada Inc. to take 1.13 million litres of water, which it then bottles and sells, from an aquifer in Wellington County near Guelph. GUELPH AQUIFERLast year, the Ontario government — through the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) — renewed the permit on the condition that Nestle would take less water from the aquifer during serious droughts. But Nestle appealed these mandatory restrictions to the Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal, which has jurisdiction to determine disputes over groundwater permits. Then the MOE tried to cut a settlement deal with Nestle.

ENVIRO LAW CLINICThe deal would have allowed Nestle to avoid the mandatory drought restrictions. But in February, pro bono lawyers at Ecojustice challenged the deal on behalf of Wellington Water Watchers and Council of Canadians.

We filed a legal submission with the Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal, arguing that the proposed settlement was bad for the province and deserved closer scrutiny. Last month, the Tribunal agreed with our clients. It concluded that the proposed settlement deal was not in the public interest and was inconsistent with the Ontario Water Resources Act. The Tribunal ordered a full hearing so that the appropriateness of the drought-based restrictions could be thoroughly examined.  But recently, as a result of the Tribunal’s decision to order a hearing, Nestle withdrew its appeal of the mandatory drought restrictions. The deal is dead.

GUELPH GROUNDWATERSo Nestle must comply with the original permit conditions, reducing the amount of groundwater it takes from Wellington County during drought. Because these non-profit community groups took action, Nestle must leave more water for other users (in dry times) and the government must ensure they live up to that promise.       

Federal, provincial and municipal governments are each responsible, to the extent of their jurisdictions, for managing groundwater resources. But that’s not always what happens. Sometimes well-organized, dedicated members of the public must use the legal system to hold government accountable.

GUELPH WATERSHEDOur watersheds are vulnerable when governments roll out the red carpet for private companies who bristle at mandatory restrictions on their water takings.

In this case, the MOE had it right in the first place — drought-based restrictions should be applied to all future water takings for bottle water enterprises. All Ontarians, not just those who drink water from a well, need to be protected against those who would cut deals that limit the government’s ability to safeguard our shared water supplies. The same approach should apply in Quebec.

PONTIACThe example from Wellington County resonates throughout Canada. It hits home to those of us living in the Pontiac who depend on well-water for our basic needs. When making decisions about the water that sustains our communities, the government’s job is to put the greater public interest first.

Ed. note: William Amos is a Chelsea resident and is the Director of the Ecojustice Environmental Law Clinic at the University of Ottawa. Carissa Wong is an articling student at Ecojustice.

NESTLE ROAD SIGNThe following are my thoughts and not part of this article:
I would think that the province of B.C. should be taking a very close look at this  outcome for many like Sheila Muxlow, pictured outside Nestle’s bottling plant near Hope, B.C. on Aug. 12, 2013, who have concerns about Nestle withdrawing millions of litres of water without payment.  According to the provincial Ministry of Environment, “B.C. is the only jurisdiction in Canada that doesn’t regulate groundwater use.”

http://www.lowdownonline.com/battle-with-nestle-over-water-affects-pontiac/

Interesting related link ~

https://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/blog_categories/bottled-water/blogs/

CUT WATER BILLS BY $1OOO+ ~ INCREDIBLE INNOVATION!!!

ORBSHOWER

The following excerpt is from CNN.com’s ‘Futuristic water-recycling shower cuts bills by over $1,000′, by Stefanie Blendis and Monique Rivalland. Youtube video, “Futuristic water recycling shower cuts bills by over $1,000″, published on Nov 12, 2013

ASTRONAUTIn space, astronauts go for years without a fresh supply of water. Floating in a capsule in outer space they wash and drink from the same continuously recycled source. So why, asked Swedish industrial designer Mehrdad Mahdjoubi, do we not do the same on Earth?
This was the concept behind the OrbSys Shower - a high-tech purification system that recycles water while you wash. In the eyes of Mahdjoubi, we should start doing it now, before it becomes a necessity. 

CLOSED LOOP

So how does it work? Similar to space showers, it works on a “closed loop system:” hot water falls from the tap to the drain and is instantly purified to drinking water standard and then pumped back out of the shower head. As the process is quick, the water remains hot and only needs to be reheated very slightly.

As a result, it saves more than 90% in water usage and 80% in energy every time you shower, while also producing water that is cleaner than your average tap.
“With my shower, which is constantly recycling water, you’d only use about five liters of water for a 10 minute shower … In a regular shower you would use 150 liters of water – 30 times as much… According to research carried out by his company, Orbital Systems, these savings translate to at least €1000 ($1351) off your energy bills each year.
Mahdjoubi proposed the OrbSys shower while studying Industrial Design at the University of Lund in Sweden. His concept formed part of a collaborative project with NASA’s NASA LOGOJohnson Space Center, which looks to drive design concepts that could potentially assist space expeditions…
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1.2 trillion gallons of water are used every year for showering in the United States alone. And yet, rather disturbingly, across the world more than three times the population of the States lacks access to any clean water at all.
NO COMPROMISEThe concept of a water-saving shower is by no means a new one, but when CNN’s Blueprint team caught up with Mahdjoubi at his offices in Malmo, southern Sweden, he explained that because it doesn’t compromise on comfort, it’s different to the rest. It has a higher than average water pressure and a very stable flow because, unlike conventional showers, it works independently from other appliances …
At the bathing house, CNN introduced Mahdjoubi to Danish industrial designer Nille Juul- Sørensen, who recently designed Malmo’s Triangeln train station. Juul- Sørensen was keen to talk about the wider potential of Mahdjoubi’s design: “My interest is not in the objects but in the system. There will be so many applications for this.”
If deployed on a bigger scale, the purification technology developed for OrbSys could be used in taps and drinking fountains in the world’s developing countries, where water-related illness is rife. “Everybody should save as many resources as possible,” says Mahdjoubi, “but obviously these showers would be even more beneficial for people living in areas with water shortages.
“I want to get it to as many people as possible. That’s the next step. It’s not just about saving water. The motivation is to be smart about how we use our planet’s resources.”
http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/11/tech/innovation/futuristic-water-recycling-shower-orbsys/index.html

SPLITTING WATER INTO H2 AND O ~ WOW!!!

WATER SPLIT LIGHT
We all know that water is made up of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen, which are chemically combined in the ratio of two hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom. It usually has a bluish tint and its also tasteless and odourless, but now remarkably a device uses light to split water into clean burning hydrogen.

The following excerpts are from the article, “Device uses light to split water into clean hydrogen”, posted by Mark Shwartz-Stanford, November 15, 2013

CARThe water splitter is a silicon semiconductor coated in an ultrathin layer of nickel and it could help pave the way for large-scale production of clean hydrogen fuel from sunlight, according to the researchers. Their results are published in the journal Science.  The goal is to supplement solar cells with hydrogen-powered fuel cells that can generate electricity when the sun isn’t shining or demand is high.

IMAGEThe image above shows two electrodes connected via an external voltage source splitting water into oxygen(O2) and hydrogen(H2). The illuminated silicon electrode (left) uses light energy to assist in the water-splitting process and is protected from the surrounding electrolyte by a 2-nm film of nickel.  (Credit: Guosong Hong, Stanford University)

Solar cells only work when the sun is shining,” says study co-author Hongjie Dai, a professor of chemistry at Stanford University. “When there’s no sunlight, utilities often have to rely on electricity from conventional power plants that run on coal or natural gas.”   A greener solution, Dai says, is to supplement the solar cells with hydrogen-powered fuel cells that generate electricity at night or when demand is especially high.

HOW TO SPLIT WATER
SCIENTISTSPhoto: Peichuan Shen, PhD student; Shen Zhao, PhD student; and Dr. Alexander Orlov

To produce clean hydrogen for fuel cells, scientists have turned to an emerging technology called water splitting. Two semi-conducting electrodes are connected and placed in water. The electrodes absorb light and use the energy to split the water into its basic components, oxygen and hydrogen.  The oxygen is released into the atmosphere, and the hydrogen is stored as fuel.  When energy is needed, the process is reversed. The stored hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen are combined in a fuel cell to generate electricity and pure water.   The entire process is sustainable and emits no greenhouse gases. But finding a cheap way to split water has been a major challenge…
SILICON SOLUTION
“Silicon, which is widely used in solar cells, would be an ideal, low-cost material,” says Stanford graduate student Michael J. Kenney, co-lead author of the Science study. “But silicon degrades in contact with an electrolyte solution… In STANDFORD U2011, another Stanford research team addressed this challenge by coating silicon electrodes with ultrathin layers of titanium dioxide and iridium. That experimental water splitter produced hydrogen and oxygen for eight hours without corroding.  “Those were inspiring results, but for practical water splitting, longer-term stability is needed,” Dai says. “Also, the precious metal iridium is costly. A non-precious metal catalyst would be desirable.”  To find a low-cost alternative, Dai suggested that Kenney and his colleagues try coating silicon electrodes with ordinary nickel.  “Nickel is corrosion-resistant,” Kenney says. “It’s also an active oxygen-producing catalyst, and it’s earth-abundant. That makes it very attractive for this type of application.”
NICKEL NANOFILM
For the experiment, the Dai team applied a 2-nanometer-thick layer of nickel onto a silicon electrode, paired it with another electrode, and placed both in a solution of water and potassium borate.  When light and electricity were applied, the electrodes began splitting the water into oxygen and hydrogen, a process that continued for about 24 hours with no sign of corrosion.  To improve performance, the researchers mixed lithium into the water-based solution. “Remarkably, adding lithium imparted superior stability to the electrodes,” Kenney says. “They generated hydrogen and oxygen continuously for 80 hours—more than three days—with no sign of surface corrosion.” … “Our lab has produced one of the longest lasting silicon-based photoanodes,” he says. “The results suggest that an ultrathin nickel coating not only suppresses corrosion but also serves as an electrocatalyst to expedite the otherwise sluggish water-splitting reaction… The scientists plan to do additional work on improving the stability and durability of nickel-treated electrodes of silicon as well as other materials.  The Precourt Institute for Energy and the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford and the National Science Foundation funded the work.

Article link – http://www.futurity.org/device-uses-light-split-water-clean-hydrogen/?utm_source=Futurity+Today&utm_campaign=aa7a65b600-November_15_201311_15_2013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e34e8ee443-aa7a65b600-206319993

 

WARM OR COLD WATER FREEZES FASTER? ~ DO YOU KNOW?

The following article and responses were posted by George Dvorsky ~ see link at end of blog.

ICEWe may finally know why warm water freezes faster than cool water.

It’s a conundrum that’s baffled scientists since the time of Aristotle: Why do warmer liquids freeze faster than cooler ones? Researchers from Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University have come up with an awesome new theory that may finally put the mystery to rest.

ERASTOIt’s called the Mpemba Effect, and scientists have tossed around a number of theories to explain it.  Some believe that the nucleation temperature of water and the specific impurities it contains determines whether or not the Mpemba Effect will occur. Alternate theories suggest that it may have something to do with certain elements that are in the water, like salt, carbon dioxide, or magnesium. These compounds form a briny muck that causes water to freeze lower and boil higher than it should. And because heating water will shake free some of these substances, the Mpemba Effect can be facilitated.

These aren’t great theories — but they’re the best we got. At least until now.

The Stretching of the Bonds

According to the new study, the Mpemba Effect is caused by a small amount of energy that’s stored in stretched hydrogen bonds.

WATER MOLECULESo here’s the deal: Water molecules have one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, which are held together by covalent bonds — chemical bonds which share a pair of electrons between atoms and a molecule. Then there’s the hydrogen bond to consider; for water molecules, hydrogen atoms are likewise attracted to the oxygen atoms in other nearby water molecules, while water molecules repel each another.

O:H-O bond in water ice. Credit: Xi Zhang et al:WATER ICE BOND

What the researchers discovered was that, as water gets warmer, distance increases between water molecules owing to the repellant force between them. This causes the hydrogen bonds to stretch, and a stretching bond means there’s energy being stored (heating stores energy into the hydrogen bond by shortening and stiffening it) — and this stored energy gets released as the water is cooled, allowing the molecules to get closer to one another. And when molecules get close enough to each other, we get that neat little effect we call cooling, and eventually, freezing.

Now, warm water has more of this hydrogen bond stretching action happening than in cool water. Warm water, therefore, stores more energy — and it has more to release when exposed to freezing temperatures. Which explains why warmer water freezes faster than cooler water.

It sounds like the researchers are really onto something, but it’s just conjecture at this point. Their paper, which appears at the pre-print archive arXiv, still needs to be scrutinized by their peers: “O:H-O Bond Anomalous Relaxation Resolving Mpemba Paradox.”

http://io9.com/we-finally-know-why-warm-water-freezes-faster-than-cool-1458737239

Related link ~ http://io9.com/5505068/decades+long-physics-mystery-sparked-by-ice-cream

P.E.I.’S NEW WATER AUDIT PROGRAM

PEI WATER AUDIT

Switching to low-flow shower heads can cut water-use by half and save thousands of dollars from a hotel’s water bill. It’s just one of the suggestions the City of Charlottetown floated to hotels in a recent water audit. Laura Chapin explains in this CBC audio, ‘Conservation, policies and PEI’s water-use laws’, May 16, 2013 ~
http://www.cbc.ca/islandmorning/episodes/2013/05/16/conservation-policies-and-peis-water-use-laws/

The following article, Be My Guest ‘Hotels participate in a new water audit program in Prince Edward Island.’ by Clark Kingsbury appears in the May/June issue of WaterCanada magazine.

Charlottetown’s Water and Sewer Utility Department has launched an innovative project aiming to improve water efficiency in the city’s hotels. The Hotel Audit project offers to identify easy, cost-effective way for hotels to reduce water waste by both guests and staff. The project will be executed in partnership with Holland College’s Energy Systems Engineering Technology program. Three hotels are currently involved.

“This pilot supports the tourism industry while also reducing the amount of water used in our city during the busy summer months,” says Charlottetown Mayor Clifford Lee. “Involving Holland College in the process allows us access to the expertise of its energy systems engineering technology program managers and provides students with an excellent educational opportunity.” The project requires students to perform the audits with water and sewer utility staff members.

Despite public concern about the amount of water consumed by cruise ships docking in Charlottetown’s harbour, the city’s hotels actually consume more water than the Harbour Authority uses in an entire year.

“It seems lately that the focus has moved from conservation to trying to assign blame to a particular industry for high water usage, but the reality is that it’s not one industry or sector that is to blame,” says the water and sewer utility’s chair, Edward Rice. “Conserving water and finding ways to keep water use down during the summer months is the collective responsibility of all businesses, sectors, and industries, as well as governments and residents.”

The audit includes testing of all water use in the participating facilities, and provides recommendations with payback periods based on anticipated savings on water and energy bills.

 

OTTAWA RIVER KEEPER ~ IMPRESSIVE VIDEO

OTTAWA RIVER

The following video, “Ottawa River Keeper”, was uploaded on Mar. 10, 2008, by Lu Utronki.  This video is designed to bring awareness to the importance of the Ottawa River for sustainability. 

The Ottawa River flows through the provinces of Quebec and Ontario for over 1200 kilometres.  There are almost 2 million people who live throughout the Ottawa River watershed.  To the Algonquin First Nations who lived by its banks and traveled by canoe the river was known as the Kitchi-sippi, meaning “The Great River“.  Visitors such as white water paddlers, fishing enthusiasts and river trippers from around the world looking for a wilderness experience  enjoy the Ottawa River year round.  The Ottawa River is a globally significant river and is part of the Great Lakes St. Lawrence watershed, and is the largest freshwater system in the entire world.

Hope to see you back here for our next blog featuring “Ottawa River Keeper Part 2″ and “Alexandra Cousteau on the Ottawa River” – a Youtube video published this year on September 14th.

WATER, THE MIRACLE OF LIFE

WATER MIRACLE OF LIFEWater, The Miracle of Life – Optimize your mind and body by staying hydrated – August 31, 2012, by CHFA

JOY MCCARTHYThis week Registered/Certified Holistic Nutritionist CNP RNCP, Joy McCarthy, discusses the importance of hydration. Discover details about how much water you should really be drinking and how to transform it into a delicious, nutritious, energizing beverage.
Summer is winding down and days are getting cooler, but this does not mean we should reduce our water intake. Exercising makes us sweat, regardless of the surrounding temperature, and electrolytes still need to be replenished. Proper hydration keeps you energized, prevents headaches, keeps muscle cramps at bay, and can help you feel fabulous all day!FIRST IMAGE
FOUNDATIONWater is the foundation of all life and its value to our bodies is immeasurable. In fact, we are made up of nearly 70 per cent water! Many of our basic metabolic processes, such as the regulation of body temperature, require enormous amounts of water – up to three litres daily.
ATHLETESEven breathing expels up to a pint of water every day. Keeping your body functioning at an optimal level is necessary for physical and mental well-being, and proper hydration is essential to that.
As mentioned, daily bodily functions account for significant water loss. For example, your feet have 250,000 sweat glands and can lose half a pint of water on a normal day! If you’re exercising regularly, this amount can increase to 2.4 litres (five pounds) per hour! Imagine what that translates to when you include all of the sweat glands in our bodies, all of the metabolic functions, and any other processes that consume water.             
How much is enough?
WATER WITH BERRYWe’ve all heard that we should drink eight to ten glasses of water every day, but this is just a guideline. We are all unique. To help you stay as hydrated as you need to be, here’s a guiding formula: drink 50 to 75 per cent of your body weight in ounces, depending on how much activity you get daily. For example, if you weigh 140 pounds, 70 ounces of water is ELDERLYoptimal if you are sedentary and 105 ounces is best, if you are active.ATHLETES This means that at 140 pounds, you should be drinking a minimum of nine cups of water daily – 13 if you are getting regular exercise!
Reinvent your water
TAP WATERIf you find plain tap water boring or unsatisfying, spice it up anyway you like. The internet is full of cool, quenching ideas, but here are a few of my favourite suggestions:
MIXED FRUIT1.Add Flavor and Fibre: Freeze some blueberries, mangos, or sliced peaches and add them to your water. This will not only sweeten it, but eating the fruits will also give you a tasty boost of fibre, vitamins and minerals. Fibre is important because it helps digestive functioning, lowers cholesterol, and, according to more recent studies, may even help prevent certain types of cancer.
EMERGEN C2.Emergen C: This powdered mix adds a kick of flavour and nutrients to your water. There are a variety of flavours you can choose from, and each conveniently sized packet contains a blend of seven ascorbates (types of Vitamin C), seven B vitamins, which keep your energy levels up, and 32 active minerals, antioxidants, and other micronutrients to refresh and energize you.
ESTER C3.Ester-C Individual Pack: This mix has a host of beneficial properties. Ester-C is a great source of vitamins C and B and also contains precious electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. This formula provides your body with the nutrients necessary to keep you energized and feeling great, and helps maintain muscle function, support bones, cartilage, teeth, gums, and even healthy skin.
FRUITY WATER4.Get creative: These are only a few suggestions and of course you should explore options that satisfy your taste buds and bodily needs.

The Canadian Health Food Association

https://www.chfa.ca/resources/water-the-miracle-of-life-optimize-your-mind-and-body-by-staying-hydrated/

If you know that your family is not enjoying the taste of your tap water, you would be wise to consider installing a Rainsoft Reverse Osmosis system.  Not only will you enjoy the benefit of pure natural tasting water, but you will stop worrying about the harmful chemicals, parmaceuticals, pesticides and herbicides that are present in your water.

Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc.
5450 Canotek Road, Unit 67
Ottawa, ON K1J 9G5
Phone: (613) 742-0058
Mon. – Fri. 9:00 – 5:00