Tag Archives: Ottawa South

Canada water and wastewater systems dilemma

The following article, “Balancing Act – How PC3s may help Canada’s water and wastewater systems given the dilemma faced by municipalities”, by David Caplan, was posted to ReNew Canada on September 3, 2014

IMAGE1


IMAGE2Properly maintained water and wastewater systems underpin our quality of life. Most Canadians are unaware of the poor condition of these systems and the risks associated with our governments’ lack of an adequate plan for long-term sustainability. If not addressed, this negligence will cause economic hardship and may also pose a threat to public health and safety and the environment.

In some municipalities, parts of water systems were built in the 19th century, with some dating back as early  and safety and the environment. as the 1870s.  In the City of Toronto, for example, DIRTY WATERhalf of the water network is at least 50 years old and almost 10 per cent is more than 100 years old. It was reported in May 2014 that 13 per cent of Toronto’s drinking water contained unsafe levels of lead due to the dilapidation of water pipes that were installed in the 1950s.

COSTLYInefficiencies in our water and wastewater systems are costly. On top of the province’s decaying municipal water and wastewater infrastructure, many drinking water distribution systems have leakage rates ranging from 10 to 50 per cent. On average, 25 per cent of every drop of water that is purified and sent through the system is lost through leakage. Municipalities spend a lot of money treating water that will never reach the end user. The impact is multiplied when you consider these systems are the top source of energy consumption for municipalities across Canada. 

CORRODED PIPEThe risks of continued inaction are troubling. Toxic lead pipes, corroded water pipes, and broken sewer pipes are a potential source 
of drinking water contamination. Broken water and wastewater PIPEpipes can contaminate rivers and lakes, making them unsafe for drinking and recreation and threatening wildlife and fish stocks. Broken watermains often cause disruptions in traffic, significant property damage, and substantial costs.

These risks are not hypothetical or worst-case scenarios, but ongoing problems that currently threaten water and wastewater systems in Canada.

FUNDING ESTIMATEThe scale of the infrastructure gap is staggering. Canada’s municipal water infrastructure deficit currently sits at more than $80 billion. Many municipal systems require significant capital investments that most simply don’t have in their annual budgets.

So how do we repair an antiquated system given the financial dilemma faced by municipalities?

With a significant need for investment to update aging infrastructure and lack of budgetary capacity in municipalities to fund it, creative solutions are needed. Although many Canadians are (rightfully) concerned about the retention of public ownership over their water and wastewater systems, solutions that marry the best of public-sector oversight with private-sector financial innovation and technical advances are required.

The question of public versus private ownership of water is divisive. Sustaining and improving water and wastewater systems while retaining public ownership of our water utilities is fundamental to protecting our drinking water and public health. The issue we have today is not with who owns what—but more so who pays for what.

MONEY TREEWith the financing gap, coupled with the concern over public ownership, how do we inject new capital into a sector that has long shuddered in fear of any private involvement?

P3SConsider the example set by the Province of Ontario. Public-private partnerships (P3s) have been used by the Ontario government to inject private capital into the public health care domain for more than a decade. The result has been remarkable. The gap that once existed between the available public funds and the investments required for new and aging hospitals has decreased dramatically. The government, alongside health-care officials, managed to balance the injection of private financing models with the sensitivity over the public ownership of hospitals and health-care facilities.

HEALTH CARE REFORMP3s proved to health-care officials and local municipalities that they would retain ownership over their health care services and transfer financial and related construction risks over to the private sector. This, in turn, protected the taxpayer and ensured that the system is maintained and kept to a higher standard than what currently exists. The utilization of the P3 model also promotes full-system cost recovery and ring-fencing, which protects consumers from financial instability and guarantees that any money generated by the system stays within it to encourage regular re-investment and renewal.

BUDGETBoth full-system recovery and ring-fencing are critical in making the P3 model work for water and wastewater projects as it will help municipalities deal with the current economic conditions that call for tight budgets and decreased spending. The injection of private financing into the system would promote technological innovation that could make Canada one of the world leaders in clean water technology.

  VICTORIAFollowing this example, Canadian municipalities need to consider adapting the P3 model to close the financing gap that currently exists in the water and wastewater sector. Municipalities like Victoria, Edmonton, and Regina are already leading the way in EDMONTONadapting the model for use in the water and wastewater sector.
These municipalities were successful in implementing the P3 model despite fears it would kick-start the privatization of public infrastructure, loosen accountability, and
begin the process of monopolizing water and wastewater entities. REGINAVictoria, Edmonton, and Regina were all able to prove that the P3 model would ensure the retention of public ownership; increase operational and financial transparency; and promote a fair, open, and efficient bidding process.

Regina consequently approved the use of the P3 model for its water and wastewater systems in September 2013, with 57 per cent of the population voting in support of a referendum on the issue. This process proved that a proper explanation and defense of the P3 model is crucial in the early stages of any project that involves a public utility—especially one as galvanizing as water and wastewater.

Those who are critical of applying the P3 model to public utilities claim the push for profit and a solid return on investment will lead to an increase in water rates, decrease in system reliability, and cuts to vulnerable users. However, properly structured and administered contracts provide protection to municipalities and ratepayers.

Putting aside the argument for P3s, it should be apparent that the water and wastewater systems need immediate attention in Ontario and Canada as a whole. Boil-water advisories, broken watermains, lead toxicity, and E. coli outbreaks will continue to occur if we do not address the antiquated water systems crumbling under our feet.

 

David Caplan is the vice-chair of Global Public Affairs.

“The Climate Crisis is a Water Crisis” by Gary Wockner

The following article, “The Climate Crisis is a Water Crisis” by Gary Wockner and Youtube video, “WKA Peoples Climate March Video 8 19 14″ was posted to Ecowatch.com on Sept. 15, 2014

We’ve seen near-record wildfires, rain, drought, flooding and snowpack in the last 5 years in the watersheds along the Front Range of Colorado. In the same 12 months that record rain has occurred in one part of the Southwest U.S.’ Colorado River basin, record heat and drought has occurred in another.

Climate change is real, is happening now, and the climate crisis is a water crisis.

WATER CRISIS

On Sept. 20 as a part of the People’s Climate March in New York City, I and other colleagues from the international Waterkeeper Alliance we be holding a teach-in, The Climate Crisis is a Water Crisis. We will come from all over the U.S. to tell a story about the link between climate and water, and we will offer our observations and recommendations on the next steps forward.

Here in the Southwest U.S, we must do everything we can to stop from making climate change worse. Unfortunately in Colorado and across the region, our public policies are going the wrong direction—we are drilling, fracking and mining fossil fuels faster than ever before, and we are burning them at record rates. Colorado’s frack-happy politicians and policies only seem to be rivaled by Utah’s deep dive (“carbon bomb”) into oil shale and tar sands mining. We must stop and head the other direction.

We also need to be better prepared to mitigate and adapt to climate change. We will likely see more extreme weather variability, we may see more extreme droughts in the Southwest U.S., and California’s extreme heat and drought going on right now may become a “new normal.”…

Taken from Gary’s post, “Waterkeepers March!” on Ecowatch, Sept. 21, 2014

WATERKEEPERS MARCH

“It was euphoric!

Never in my life have I been in such a mass of humanity as I was today in New York City in the largest climate march in world history. Joining me were 100 members of Waterkeeper Alliance as we marched along with more than 300,000 people through the streets of Manhattan. The march was three times bigger than anyone expected. The day was simply amazing…”

Gary Wockner, PhD, is Waterkeeper for the Cache la Poudre River in Fort Collins, Colorado, and directs the Save The Colorado River Campaign. You can reach Gary at Gary@GaryWockner.com.

YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE

300,000+ Demand Climate Action Now at Largest Climate March in World History

Naomi Klein on Democracy Now! Discussing Capitalism vs. the Climate

How Climate Change Exacerbates the Spread of Disease, Including Ebola

 

Hayley Todesco, Calgary Alta, wins Stockholm Water Prize

Hayley Todesco, 18, spent two years developing filters that use sand and bacteria to de-toxify oilsands tailings. Much of her work was done in the lab of University of Calgary professor Lisa Gieg, who provided the bacteria and the tailings.

Part 2 ~ “Hayley Todesco wins Google Science Fair”. Please see last Friday’s blog for Part 1 

~ The following article was posted on worldwaterweek.org, Sept. 3, 2014

VICTORIA HANDS ‘JUNIOR WATER PRIZE’ TO CANADIAN

Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden presented the v to Hayley Todesco from Canada for inventing a method that uses sand filters to treat oil contaminated water and recover water for reuse.The award ceremony Wednesday was part of the World Water Week in Stockholm.

Waterprijs

The winning entry is a new application of an old water treatment technology that dates back to 1804.  Sand filters have traditionally been used to treat drinking water, however Hayley Todesco   used slow sand filters on contaminated water in oil sands tailing ponds instead… “This year’s winning project addresses a neglected but pressing environmental issue. The entry displays genuine outside the box thinking. Hundreds of hours of self-driven effort achieved a project that excelled in all judging criteria,” the Jury said in its citation. 

“I am shocked but so grateful. I got the idea of using sand filters from a pen pal in Namibia two years ago, and started testing them on wastewater in a tank at home. Now I have just started studying to become a microbiologist and I hope to spend a great deal of time in the lab to continue developing the method”, Hayley Todesco said.

About Stockholm Junior Water Prize

The competition is open to young people between the age of 15 and 20 who have conducted water-related projects at local, regional, national or global levels on topics of environmental, scientific, social and/or technological importance. The aim of the competition is to increase awareness, interest and knowledge of water and the environment. As of this year the board of SIWI has decided to increase the prize sum to the winners and also to institute a new prize. The international winner will from now on receive a USD 15,000 award and a prize sculpture, the winner’s school receives USD 5,000 (new category)…

Hayley Todesco wins Canadian Google Science Fair

Part 1 of  2,  Calgary’s Hayley Todesco wins Canadian Google Science Fair prize

The following excerpt is from, “Filters made from sand and bacteria clean toxic oilsands tailings 14 times faster” posted to CBC News, July 11, 2014, by Emily Chung.

Hayley Todesco, 18, spent two years developing filters that use sand and bacteria to de-toxify oilsands tailings. Much of her work was done in the lab of University of Calgary professor Lisa Gieg, who provided the bacteria and the tailings.

A young woman from Calgary has invented a faster way to clean up toxic waste generated by oilsands extraction, using filters made from sand and bacteria. The new technology has made Hayley Todesco, 18, the Google Science Fair’s regional winner for Canada, Google announced in a news release this week…Todesco says that based on her research, her technique could break down toxic compounds found in oilsands tailings 14 times more quickly than letting them sit, stored in tailings ponds as they mainly are now.

“The significance of these results is the discovery of a sustainable way to decrease the detoxification of tailings ponds from centuries to decades,” she wrote in a summary posted on the Google Science Fair website.

Watch Hayley Todesco’s video about her project Tailings ponds occupied about 176 square kilometres in 2010 or roughly the area of B.C.’s Saltspring Island, according to the environmental think-tank the Pembina Institute. That area is expected to grow to 250 square kilometres by 2020…

Todesco said that having been born and raised in Alberta, she was very aware of this pollution problem. She was trying to think of a science fair project that would help solve it, when she thought back to a demonstration in her Grade 5 class. The class had been raising money to send filters to Africa for drinking water, and a guest speaker helped the students make some from pop bottles and sand. “We put muddy water in the top and it came out totally clean,” Todesco said. When she remembered that, she added, “That’s kind of when I had my eureka moment.”

li-syncrude-620-cp301940A tailings pond reflects the Syncrude oilsands mine facility near Fort McMurray. Such ponds of toxic waste are expected to cover 250 square kilometres by 2020. (Jeff McIntosh/The Canadian Press)

Todesco was also interested in biology and bioreactors that use bacteria to break down waste, so she decided to make a bioreactor that incorporated sand, similar to devices invented to clean European sewage in the 19th century. Todesco wanted it to break down naphthenic acid, a major toxic component of oilsands tailings…Lisa Gieg, an assistant professor in biological sciences at the university, agreed to let Todesco work in her lab with the bacteria and tailings they had already collected. Because it was a biology lab, they didn’t have much in the way of supplies for building filters, but they did offer her some tubing…Todesco then began work designing the filters, using aquarium sand, empty IV bags, and other materials she picked up at hardware and dollar stores. Initially, to speed things up, she hooked her system up to a fountain pump from Home Depot, which promptly caused it to overflow…“A few months of work was basically ruined when I turned it on,” she said. “Building and engineering was definitely the hardest part.”

It took her seven months and about 120 tries with different designs to get a working system, which relied on gravity to pull oilsands tailings through sand topped with a film of bacteria in IV bags. In all, it took two years to complete the project, including the experiment and the analysis – she checked naphthenic acid levels in about 100 samples using the lab’s gas chromatograph. Each sample was prepared for analysis in an hour-long procedure that included several minutes of vigorous shaking…In addition to going into the lab for three or four hours after school, she spent her March Breaks there and also missed lots of her Grade 12 classes at Queen Elizabeth Junior Senior High School, which her teachers later allowed her to make up. So it was with much anticipation that she stayed up late to see if her efforts and labour would get recognized by the Google Science Fair regional judges. The regional winners were quietly disclosed online at 1 a.m. ET on June 26.

“I like freaked out and woke my sister up and it was great,” Todesco said. “This is really the height of my recognition for all the work that I’ve done.”

The global finalists will be announced Aug. 6, and will have a chance to compete for prizes including a $50,000 scholarship, a trip to the Virgin Galactic spaceport and a trip to the Galapagos Islands.

Hayley TodescoHayley Todesco
Hayley Todesco, 18, has just finished Grade 12 at Queen Elizabeth Junior/Senior High School in Calgary. (Courtesy of Google)

WATER DROPLET1_FOR BLOG ICONPlease see our followup blog next Friday ~ “Hayley Todesco, Calgary Alta, wins Stockholm Water Prize”

Harvesting rainwater for soft water use – not easy!

The following article, “Hard Water – When it comes to standards and guidelines, harvesting rainwater isn’t as easy as it looks” by Kevin Wong appeared in the May/June 2011 issue of WaterCanada

RAINWATER CYCLE HEAD ARTICLE
In the last few years, as the provinces have had to wrestle with water conservation programs, policies, and myriad associated aspects, one of many topics has posed a significant challenge: how to handle rainwater harvesting and use.

Video and images used in this blog are not part of the article.

Youtube video,”Solutions for Development: Rainwater Harvesting”, uploaded on Mar 6, 2007 ~ Dr. Kent Butler explains the benefits of rainwater harvesting ~

underground cisternThere are a number of hurdles that provincial policy makers and their municipal counterparts have to handle. First, in Canada, there is just no easy template to handle greywater and, by association, rainwater. 
CDN PLUMB ASSNHere’s why. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standard for the design, installation, and maintenance of non-potable water systems (as it was referenced in Canada’s National Plumbing Code) was not adequate for adoption by the provinces. It did not offer proper guidance on intended water quality, backflow, maintenance, or testing. Development of guidelines for rainwater, water treatment, and other aspects that are critically needed by the provinces and the municipalities is ongoing.
Additionally, rainwater and storm water definitions are synonymous in Canada. Each carries some connotations that make it difficult to segregate the two definitions in policy. The difficulty results in an inability to offer simplified water treatment options for PLUMBING CODErainwater harvesting. There is a glimmer of hope, however. Provinces such as Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta have taken the leap and attempted to make these landmark changes to policy. Already there are draft changes posted for the next edition of the Ontario Plumbing Code.

RAINWATER TO POTABLE WATER

In the future, it’s hoped that the result would make it easier, policy-wise, to collect, disinfect (treat), and distribute rainwater to the home for a number of applications (some of which may not be available for treated greywater), such as showering or laundry. While the theory would be to use rainwater and appropriately treat for potable drinking water uses, the framework is not yet available in Canada.
AMERICAN PLUMB ENGINEERS Finally, the storage aspect of water storage is missing. In its rainwater harvesting guide, the American Society of Plumbing Engineers suggests that stored water does not need to be disinfected. Before disinfection for rainwater storage can be evaluated, containers would need to meet cistern or storage vessel standards like CSA B126. That standard is in the works.
wet_holding_tank_trailerThe water treatment technology to properly assess, manage, and set up water reuse systems exists. It doesn’t matter whether it’s a rainwater or greywater
grey water re-use
reuse system—what’s missing are the essential and proper standards and guidelines to bring the policy makers to a comfortable level as they mandate these systems into general policy.

cisternThere are models out there which we can turn to for best practices in the absence of these documents. We have a long way to go before we solve this challenge, but we’re working on it. 
WONGKevin Wong is the executive
director of the Canadian Water
Quality Association

Related link http://www.greenvillecounty.org/soil_and_water/pdf/rain_harvesting.pdf

Fun Friday ~ Quirky USA Town Trivia

The following article and photos were posted on Huffington Post’s “The Blog” Sept. 3, 2014 – taken from Travel+Leisure July 12, 2014 by Katrina Brown Hunt
America’s Quirkiest Towns (PHOTOS)

Paul Stone loves the colorful locals he sees on Boulder, Colorado’s downtown plaza, the no-cars-allowed Pearl Street Mall…
 That double-jointed blend is probably why the Colorado mountain town also made the top 20 for quirky locals, according to Travel + Leisure readers.
They ranked hundreds of towns for such magnetic qualities as vibrant main streets, coffee bars, and an eco-friendly vibe. And while plenty of those features may contribute to a town’s unique personality, the top 20 winners in the quirky category take it a step further. One highly ranked town is an unlikely hotbed for Tibetan monks, while another largely forgoes Valentine’s Day to celebrate Charles Darwin instead. Asheville, North Carolina, for instance, ranked highly for its booming craft beer industry and diverse dining scene — but here, “diverse” goes well beyond a few good places to eat pho. On his No Taste Like Home tour, Ashevillian Alan Muskat lets visitors forage in the woods for – and then sample – wild local delicacies like “fairy potatoes,” which grow on vines, and reishi, known as the Mushroom of Immortality. “Asheville sits smack in the middle of the most biodiverse temperate bioregion on the planet,” Muskat boasts. “So even our plants are freaky.”

No. 1 Asheville, NC
1 ASHVILLEIs it the thinner mountain air or that the locals are standing too close to a vortex? Either way, these North Carolinians are tops for eccentricity thanks to both old and new charms: the vortex-laden terrain, which purports to send off good energy; the Friday night drum circle in downtown’s Pritchard Park; and the seemingly bottomless love of local beer. To tap into their vibes, try the beer-and-moonshine “hoptails” at Grove Park Inn’s Great Hall Bar, the BRÖÖ shampoo at the Earth Fare shop, or the port cake at Short Street Cakes. Asheville also ranked in the top 10 for great bakeries; Vortex Doughnutsoffers a local beer-of-the-day donut.
No. 2 Provincetown, MA

2  PROVINCETOWN

With its history of artists and theater types—Eugene O’Neill, Al Pacino, and Barbra Streisand all cut their teeth here—Provincetown has always provided a colorful contrast to the otherwise seersuckered Cape Cod. For a suitably quirky place to stay, check in at the Salt House Inn, where each room has a “wall of curiosities” featuring vintage art or interesting objects found along the beach. The longtime gay-friendly destination also impressed readers with its seafood shacks (such as the Red Shack, which does Mexican and Moroccan lobster rolls) and cool souvenirs, such as a photo of your aura, done by Whaler’s Wharf psychic Carolyn Miller.

No. 3 Ithaca, NY

3 ITHICA

This upstate New York college town has deep hippie roots—it’s the home of legendary vegetarian restaurant Moosewood—but these are not your typical flower children. Come February, instead of celebrating Valentine’s, the town makes a big to-do over Charles Darwin’s birthday, in its Darwin Days. Thanks to the area’s Cayuga Wine Trail, Ithaca also scored in the top five for vino. Start your taste testing with Six Mile Creek, which uses grapes even for distilled spirits like its Chardonnay-based gin.

No. 4 Boulder, CO

4 BOULDER

This lovable mountain town is so outdoorsy (and granola) that each July, locals hold a Tube to Work Day. And while Colorado has recently become more famous for its smokable “herbs,” you can still explore the town’s original herbal high on a free tour of the Celestial Seasonings tea factory, or sit down for afternoon tea and samosas at the elaborately hand-carved Boulder Dushanbe Tea House, originally built in Boulder’s sister city in Tajikistan. To see why the town also ranked well for burgers, check out the grass-fed wonders at The Sink, which is completely wind-powered.

No. 5 Lambertville, NJ

5 LAMBERTVILLE

To folks in this quaint town along the Delaware River, the real weirdos may be the motorcycle riders and Wiccans across the bridge in New Hope, PA. Still, these Jersey denizens—artists, gardeners, and perhaps actors gunning to play General Washington in the next historical reenactment—get props for their serious attitude toward antiques. The four-story People’s Store has been selling treasures since 1832 (when such things weren’t old). For people-watching, go to coffee and gourmet shop Lambertville Trading Company, where the java is old-school, too: iced coffee served with frozen cubes of coffee and a full range of bone-china mugs.

No. 6 Aspen, CO

6 ASPEN

This tiny Colorado ski town attracts more than just the designer snowsuit crowd. Check out Woody Creek Tavern, one of Hunter S. Thompson’s favorite hangouts, with its sensory-overloaded walls of newspaper clippings and children’s art. Residents have a soft spot for pet lovers: the local shelter’s Rent-a Pet program lets you visit with a designated cat or dog during your stay. Aspen also ranked well for its sense of adventure, which can extend from outdoor sports to food and drink. AtZocalito’s, you can order your guacamole withchapulines (grasshoppers), and at Hotel Jerome’sJ-Bar, be sure to try an Aspen Crud, the bourbon-laced milkshake cocktail that dates back to Prohibition.

No. 7 Fayetteville, AR

7 FAYETTEVILLE

Whether you chalk it up to kookiness or school pride, this college town celebrates New Year’s each year with its own Hog Drop. The home of the University of Arkansas Razorbacks also ranked well for its sense of history: at the Clinton House Museum, you can stand in the modest little home where the former president and secretary of state once lived (and even got married, in the living room). To feel even more like an insider, stay at theInn at Carnall Hall—an elegant hotel built from a rehabbed women’s dorm—and tuck in at one of Fayetteville’s high-ranking diners, such as theRolling Pin Café, where on Saturdays you can order your biscuits with chocolate gravy.

water-dropletHope you all enjoyed your armchair travel time with us and have a great weekend.

Water Puppet Performance ~ Top-notch! ~ Captivating!!!

1-WATER PUPPET SHOW

The following “Water Puppet Show Performance at Thang Long Theatre, Vietnam. Part 1”, published Apr 6, 2014 on Youtube, is definitely a first class performance, when you consider the difficult level of precision and coordination required to overcome the ebb and flow of the water – all very captivating!
There are 3 parts to this performance on Youtube.
THEATREOn our very last day of travel in Vietnam we decided to watch a Water Puppet Show (known locally as Múa rối nước) at Thang Long Theatre in Hanoi, Vietnam… Water puppetry literally refers to puppets that dance on water which is a traditional Vietnamese art that dates back to the eleventh century in northern sections of Vietnam. Water Puppet Performances take place in various locations throughout the country; however, Hanoi has a reputation for being the ‘it’ place to take in the experience.
PUPPETEERSPuppeteers are concealed behind a screen in waist deep water wielding puppets that are made out of wood and then lacquered. Large rods and strings are used by the puppeteers to control them. Thus the puppets appear to be moving over the water. When the rice fields would flood, the villagers would entertain each other using this form of puppet play.

FOLKLOREThe performances are centered chiefly around Vietnamese Folklore with emphasis on traditional ways of life, spirituality, and day to day existence that was passed on from one generation to another; it literally amazes me to think that this performance art form dates back so many years.
The puppets are accompanied by a traditional Vietnamese orchestra that provides background music including the use of bells, cymbals, gongs and flutes. In my opinion, the music is as much an appealing part of the show as the performance itself. MEKONG DELTAAlthough I’ve listened to traditional Vietnamese folk music being played while touring the Mekong Delta, I felt the skill level from these musicians put them in a league of their own…
Water puppetry (Vietnamese: Múa rối nước, lit. “puppets that dance on water”) is a tradition that dates back as far as the 11th century when it originated in the villages of the Red River Delta area of northern Vietnam. Today’s Vietnamese water puppetry is a unique variation on the ancient Asian puppet tradition.
RED RIVERMúa rối nước is considered to have originated in the delta of the Red river in Vietnam in the 11th century, and the art remains highly developed today in this country. Some of the earliest troupes were found in the Nguyên Xá commune, Đông Hưng district, Thai Binh province.
RURAL VILLAGEIn ancient Vietnam, the rural Vietnamese believed that spirits controlled all aspect of their lives, from the kitchen to the rice paddies. The Vietnamese devised water puppetry as a way to satisfy these spirits, and as a form of entertainment, using what natural medium they could find in their environment. In ancient times, the ponds and flooded rice paddies after harvest were the stage for these impromptu shows.

This  top-notch performance video is certainly worth sharing!!!