University of Waterloo – The Water Institute
Through collaboration among individuals engaged in water science, technology, management and governance, the Water Institute is an interdisciplinary hub that facilitates innovative research, education and training. The Institute’s activities focus on the sustainable use and management of water resources to support healthy and prosperous communities and ecosystems at the national and international scale. Throughout its history, the University of Waterloo has demonstrated a significant and consistent commitment to education and research on water-related topics and has garnered international acclaim for its innovative solutions to society’s water problems.
Launch of the The Water Institute’s External Partners Program
With over 125 faculty members and 400 graduate students, distributed over all six faculties, the University of Waterloo has one of the largest and most diverse water research programs in Canada. Established in 2009 the Water Institute supports and encourages greater interdisciplinarity among our programs. An important element in the strategy to achieve our goals is to encourage much closer association between the University and external organizations, including the private sector, government, civil society and other research facilities.
Please join us for this year’s Water Institute’s Research Symposium to be held May 2, 2013 at the University of Waterloo. The 2013 symposium will showcase the breadth of Waterloo’s water research and provide an opportunity for organizations to interact with researchers and students.
Posted in Art, Collage, Conservation, Educational, Endangered resources, Environment, Environmental concerns, Innovative technology, Nature, Science and Technology, Water, Water conservation
Tagged 2013, Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, BNP Paribas, Buckingham, Canada, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, climate, Colleges and Universities, communities and ecosystems, Cumberland, ecosystems, education, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, External Partners Program, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Graduate school, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, Navan, North Gower, Ontario, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, research, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, science, South Mountain, St. Albert, The Water Institute, University of Waterloo, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, water institute, Water Institute’s Research Symposium to be held May 2, water resources, water science, water science technology, water.uwaterloo.ca, Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario
Nature Works LLC, a solely-independent division of Cargill, is the first company in the world to produce packaging that is 100 per cent compostable.
Made entirely from field corn, NatureWorks PLA is a food packaging resin that uses an annually renewable resource that doesn’t compromise the earth’s’ ability to meet the needs of tomorrow.”
It’s like using food to carry your food – or your water – as is the case with BIOTA Spring Water. YouTube video: HowStuffWorks Show: Episode 1: Corn Plastic, This clip from the HowStuffWorks show on the Discovery Channel discusses the use of corn to make plastic. Plastic made from corn is biodegradable, carbon-neutral and edible. Could corn plastic revolutionize the plastics industry?
The items shown in the collage below are just a very few of the many products that are made from this corn resin – amazing! YouTube video: Corn to Plastics, – Corn is showing up in places you would have never expected. A company in Columbus is making plastic film from corn. Our Ohio visits Plastic Suppliers to learn more about this new technology.
The technological process of producing the plastic is essentially the same as producing petroleum-based plastic. “Instead of oil-based carbon, we start with a sugar-based carbon from corn,” said Tucker. The technology is especially important to the bottled water industry in the shadow of a recent study by William Shotyk of Heidelberg University in Germany, whose research on bottled mineral water shows that the plastic containers release a deadly toxin called antimony into the water the longer it is stored.
“The NatureWorks bottle is what is referred to as a ‘barefoot resin,'” said Tucker. “There’s nothing to leach and the bottle doesn’t change the makeup of the water.” But just because the bottle is made from food doesn’t mean you can eat it. BIOTA cautions on its website, under frequently asked questions, that because the bottle is a plastic product, it’s not recommended that the containers be consumed.
BIOTA spring water bottle, uploaded on Jul 6, 2007 – the environmentally friendly packaging.
Here’s an interesting footnote to wrap up this blog: However the usage of PLA corn bottle involves some drawbacks also. It is obvious that the production of PLA corn bottle or any other bio plastic would necessarily involve devoting vast acres of land for producing crops used in the manufacture of plastic products rather than food. It cannot be overlooked that plants also use energy in the form of fuel, water and other resources. Besides, transportation also adds up to a lot of fuel consumption. Being disposable they add to the waste generated and cannot take the place of reusable products which are more environmentally friendly. http://www.innovateus.net/content/what-pla-corn-bottle
IMPORTANT TO NOTE: “The technology is especially important to the bottled water industry in the shadow of a recent study by William Shotyk of Heidelberg University in Germany, (please see link below) whose research on bottled mineral water shows that the plastic containers release a deadly toxin called antimony into the water the longer it is stored.”
This is another very important reason for everyone to realize the dangers of bottled water – not only to our health, but to our precious environment. It would be a very wise investment for you to consider a Reverse Osmosis water treatment system, such as the Rainsoft Reverse Osmosis system offered by us.
Eternally Pure Water Systems, Inc.
5450 Canotek Road, Unit 66-67
Ottawa, ON K1J 9G5
Mon. – Fri. 9:00 – 5:30
GUESS WHAT I’M HAVING
FOR DINNER TONIGHT?
Posted in Art, Collage, Educational, Environment, Environmental concerns, Free Water Analysis, Health Benefits, Health Concerns, Household hints, Innovative technology, Product descriptions, Reverse Osmosis Water Systems, Science and Technology, Video, Water
Tagged Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, bottled water, Buckingham, Business, Cargill, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cumberland, Discovery Channel, environment, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Germany, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Heidelberg University, HowStuffWorks, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, NatureWorks, Navan, North Gower, Ohio, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Plastic, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, South Mountain, St. Albert, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, YouTube
The first Canadian Earth Day was held on Thursday, September 11, 1980, and was organized by Paul D. Tinari, then a graduate student in Engineering Physics/Solar Engineering at Queen’s University. Flora MacDonald, then MP for Kingston and the Islands and Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, officially opened Earth Day Week on September 6, 1980 with a ceremonial tree planting and encouraged MPs and MPPs across the country to declare a cross-Canada annual Earth Day. The principal activities taking place on the first Earth Day included educational lectures given by experts in various environmental fields, garbage and litter pick-up by students along city roads and highways as well as tree plantings to replace the trees killed by Dutch Elm Disease.
Earth Day Canada (EDC) is a national environmental charity founded in 1990 that provides Canadians with practical knowledge, tools, and simple easy-to-accomplish actions to support a healthier environment through EDC’s year-round and award-winning programs.
EcoKids supports teachers and students, grades K-8, with free educational resources, curriculum-linked lesson plans including ESL and FSL, and homework help and games for students. EcoMentors offers youth the training and resources they need to facilitate local environmental education workshops with their peers and other young Canadians…
Toyota Earth Day Scholarship Program recognizes tomorrow’s environmental leaders providing twenty $5 000 scholarships to graduating high school students going on to post-secondary education in the discipline of their choice. The Hometown Heroes Award Program recognizes environmental leaders at the community level with an individual and a group award (each with a cash-prize of $10 000), and business leaders with a small business award. Earth Day Canada’s Community Environment Fund funds sustainable community projects in Ontario providing grants of up to $20 000 to schools and not-for-profit organizations.
The Diversity Engagement and Inclusion Initiative helps the environmental sector to better communicate with, engage and activate Canada’s diverse social and cultural communities. The Employee Engagement program works with employers to achieve business and sustainability goals through inclusion of best practices.
Here’s a wonderful video, ” A Photographic Tribute to The Ocean” from OneEarthOneOcean that I just came across ~ This Earth Day, One World One Ocean is giving the ocean the attention it deserves with a special video collection of ocean photographs from our online community. Here is the ocean through their eyes.
Let’s take up the challenge
to do our part as keepers of Mother Earth
– the need is great!
Posted in Art, Collage, Conservation, Educational, Energy Conservation, Environment, Environmental concerns, Nature, Nature, Nature conservation, Recycling
Tagged Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, Buckingham, Canada, Canada's first Earth Day September 6 in 1980, Canadian Earth Day, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cumberland, Dutch Elm Disease, Earth Day, EcoKids, Employee Engagement, Employee Engagement program, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Fitzroy Harbour, Flora MacDonald, Gatineau, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Holidays, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, Navan, North Gower, OneWorldOneOcean, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Paul D. Tinari, Queen's University, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, South Mountain, St. Albert, The Diversity Engagement and Inclusion Initiative, Toyota Earth Day Scholarship Program, Vanier, Vars, Vernon
Simple secrets to a happy life . . . What a special treat to find another truly inspiring video from Simple Truths – “Finding Joy ~ Simple Secrets To A Happy Life” ~ sublime!!! Naturally I want to share it with all of you.
When life brings complications, it helps to remember that happiness is simple. With its beautiful pictures, uplifting quotations, and inspiring tone, ‘Finding Joy: Simple Secrets to a Happy Life’ will put a smile on your face when you need it most. So, today, take three short minutes to watch this movie. Your heart will thank you for it. Music – “Capture The Moment” by David London, uploaded on Jan 5, 2009 by Hafiz.
A difficult choice to make, but the following are a few of my favorites:
Nothing happens …but first a dream.
~ Carl Sandburg
The heart that gives, gathers.
~ Marianne Moore
Change your thoughts and change your world.
~ Norman Vincent Peale
The only things that stand between a person and what they want in life are the will to try it and the faith to believe it’s possible.
~ Rick Devos
Sometimes in the winds of change we find our true direction.
~ Author unknown
Joy is the light that fills you with Hope, Faith and Love.
~ Author unknown
To love and be loved is to feel the sun from both sides.
Link to Simple Truths site where you’ll find an impressive selection of inspiring books. Many of these books also have an accompanying video which you can preview. Simple Truths offers frequent book sales. This may be the next one I order for gift-giving.
Once again I hope that you enjoyed the video and will find joyful inspiration in many of the quotes, and of course share with others. Have a great weekend everyone.
Posted in Art, Artists, Collage, Educational, Entertainment, Inspirational, Inspirational Quotes, Inspirational videos, Music, Music, Musicians, Nature, Nature, Photographer, Photography, Relaxation, Video
Tagged Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, beautiful photography, Blackburn Hamlet, Carl Sandburg, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cumberland, David Viscott, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, faith, find your joy, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Greely, Hammond, happiness, Hawkesbury, hope, inspiration, Joy, Kanata, Limoges, Love, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Marianne Moore, Metcalfe, Munster, Navan, Norman Vincent Peale, North Gower, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Philosophy, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Richmond, Rick Devos, Russell, Sarsfield, secrets to a happy life, Simple Truths, Simpletruths video, Smile, South Mountain, St. Albert, true direction, uplifting quotations, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, winds of change
FATHOMS DEEP ~ Protecting the Seafloor
“The future is in the hands of those who explore… and from all the beauty they discover while crossing perpetually receding frontiers, they develop for nature and humankind an infinite love.” ~ Jacques Cousteau
We have a great opportunity to watch an incredible video created by Alexandra Cousteau – YouTube Sep 13, 2012. I hope you find this to be as educational and entertaining as I did.
In 2010 and 2011 Oceana partnered with SeaLife Conservation and their eco-research sailboat, the Derek M. Baylis, and the Monterey Bay Sanctuary to explore and document Monterey Bay and other incredible West Coast ocean habitats with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and camera ~ “FATHOMS DEEP – Protecting the Seafloor”, narrated by Alexandra Cousteau.
“Mankind has had an affinity for the ocean since our earliest beginnings. Near or far, the ocean draws us in. The longer you stare at the ocean, the more you take in its wonder. The deeper you go, the more you appreciate its complexity. Landing on the soft substrata of the sea floor is like arriving on another planet. It appears flat and barren, but in fact, it is teeming with life.”
Wikipedia web site has a lengthy bio on Alexandra Phillipe Cousteau, the granddaughter of world famous French explorer and filmmaker Jacques-Yves Cousteau: “A member of the third generation of the Cousteau family to devote their lives to exploring and explaining the natural world, Cousteau first went on expedition with her father, Philippe Cousteau, when she was four months old, and learned to scuba dive with her grandfather, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, when she was seven. She grew up traveling the globe, developed a passion for adventure and learned firsthand the value of conserving the natural world. Of her father and grandfather, Cousteau says, “The best example they gave me was the importance of living a life of consequence, value, and meaning. I honor their memories by creating a legacy of my own in speaking out for the preservation of our blue planet and all its waters.”
Learn more about the expedition and adventure @ oceana.org
Posted in Aquatic life, Art, Collage, Educational, Endangered Species, Geography, Incredible video footage, Incredible videography, Incredible videography, Marine biology, Marine Biology, Nature, Nature, Ocean, Oceana, Oceanography, Outdoor, Science and Technology, Video, Video, Water
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Exploring Oceans: Overview, video by National Geographic, Uploaded on Mar 16, 2009. The ocean produces 70 percent of the Earth’s oxygen and drives our weather and the chemistry of the planet. Most of the creatures on Earth live in the sea. But our knowledge of the ocean is far outstripped by our impact on it.
Researchers have compiled a database of images and data collected from the Antarctic seafloor during various expeditions to the frozen continent… Many of the images in the collection were taken at the bottom of the Weddell Sea, the large bay nestled in the frozen continent’s coast from the Antarctic Peninsula east to the Coats Land region.
Some examples of the strange creatures that thrive on the bottom of the chilly ocean surrounding Antarctica – photo credits: Julian Gutt, Alfred Wegener Institute:
Shell-less Snail ~ Clione (Clione limacina), is a shell-less snail known as the Sea Butterfly. This snail is also known as the Sea Angel that swims in the shallow waters beneath Arctic ice.
Antarctic Ice Fish ~ Even in the chilliest water, life can thrive. Ice fish, like the one seen here, have a natural antifreeze chemical in their blood and body fluids that allow them to survive frigid water temperatures.
This is an invasive king crab (Neolithodes yaldwyni) from the Antarctic shelf waters.
These predatory king crabs will cause a major reduction on seafloor biodiversity as they invade Antarctic habitats.
Ice Fish ~ This Antarctic fish… has no red blood cells or red blood pigments. This makes the fish’s blood thinner, saving energy that would otherwise be needed to pump the blood around the body.
This picture shows hydrocorals also known as sea fans – various colonial marine hydrozoans of the order Hydrocorallinae, having a limestone skeleton and thus resembling the true corals.
Cold Crustacean ~ This shy-looking critter is an inhabitant of Antarctica – first found during the research vessel Polarstern’s ANTXXIII-8 cruise. This the arthropod is about 1 inch long and can be found near Antarctica’s Elephant Island.
The Pink Lady ~ Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) plays a key role in the food webs of the South Ocean. In fact, these tiny crustaceans have developed many biological rhythms that are closely connected to large seasonal changes in their environment.
Big Red Shrimp ~ A giant Antarctic amphipod measuring 4 inches (100 mm) long. These red shrimp can be found off the Antarctic Peninsula.
Sea Pig ~There are actually several different genera and species of “sea pigs” (members of the family Elpidiidae) Not all of them live in the deep-sea, some of them live in Antarctic waters.
Antarctica: The Hunt for Killer CApr 5, 2013 rabs, published on
… For millions of years, the animals of the Antarctic sea floor have evolved in splendid isolation, with essentially no predation pressure from the crabs, sharks, and bony fish that control marine communities everywhere else in the world…Antarctica: The Hunt for Killer Crabs documents a voyage of scientists from around the world to try to get a glimpse of what could be a new killer on the sea bottom. Join them on their journey to find this new predator and see what may lie ahead for the animals that already live there.
Posted in Art, Collage, Educational, Entertainment, Environment, Geography, Marine biology, Marine Biology, Nature, Ocean, Outdoor, Video, Video, Water
Tagged Alfred Wegener, alfred wegener institute, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Almonte, Antarctic, Antarctica, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, Bouvet Island, Buckingham, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, climate, Coats Land, Cumberland, Elephant Island, environment, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Julian Gutt, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, nature, Navan, North Gower, Notothenioidei, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, red blood cells, Richmond, Russell, Sarsfield, science, Sea Butterfly, South Mountain, Southern Ocean, St. Albert, strange life on Antarctic seafloor, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, Weddell Sea
The following excerpts are taken from: FIRE AND ICE: What happens when you tamper with ice? By Steven Willard – Canadian Water Treatment magazine, Mar/Apr edition, 2006.
Ottawa’s Ice Dam Busters – Human Planet, Rivers, Preview – BBC One -uploaded on Feb 24, 2011 When the frozen river starts to melt and large ice blocks start forming a dam, it’s time for extreme measures to avoid flooding in the Canadian capital.
Ice is a dangerous substance. History is filled with examples of the destructive power of ice, from glaciers of pre-history to the modern sinking of an unsinkable ocean liner… Often the destruction from ice can be so severe that action must be taken to prevent damage. The city of Ottawa did just this thing. Worried that the ice might form a dam and back up the spring run-off which would then lead to flooding of low lying areas, the city had a program in the spring of the year to cut up ice on the Ottawa River and blast it in to manageable pieces to prevent a build up of ice in the river; a program that eventually brought the City of Ottawa to Court in 1997.
You’ll realize the danger in ice blasting in the following YouTube video, “Winter Ice Break-up at Rideau Falls, Ottawa, Canada“. Watch at 3:30 into the video to see the blasting take place – unbelievable that they’d blast so close to the bridge where people are standing and a van is damaged by the flying ice!!!
Every spring since 1887 the city has blasted the ice of the Rideau and Ottawa rivers into small chunks so that they could be flushed easily and safely down the Ottawa River before the ice could pile up and act as a dam, above which flooding would inevitably happen. Downstream from Ottawa, Rideau Falls Generating Partnership operated a hydro-electric dam at the base of the Rideau Falls. In 1992, the City of Ottawa conducted their usual ice removal program and, as a result, chuckes of ice floated down the Ottawa river, over the Rideau Falls, landed at the base of the falls and piled up. The ice piles up as high as the drop of the Rideau Falls. In essence an ice dam had been created. The water built up behind this dam and quickly flooded the generating station causing considerable damage to the station and it ceased to generate power for some months. In 1996, the exact same events occurred with more damage to the station. Rideau Falls Generating Station sued the City for damages, and won.
On the face of it, this seems unfair. The City of Ottawa had done this work every spring for many years to prevent people from being flooded from their homes. The city could not control the pile-up of ice at the bottom of the Falls, which the Court even called “unnatural.” But riparian law is very strict: if you tamper with the natural flow of water (and ice for that matter), then you will be responsible tor damages created by your actions… The city also argued that the Ontario Municipal Act allowed a municipality the right to pas a by-law to control flooding. The court held that the by-law passed by the city would not relieve the city from responsibility for its actions. Simply put, the Municipal Act did not confer on the city a right to damage property. This case stands for a number of points of law. It confirms that the owner of riparian land has a right to the natural flow of water. Anyone who tampers with that natural flow needs to take actions to prevent damage, even to the extent of preparing for extraordinary situations. And finally, downstream lands cannot be sacrificed to save upstream lands.
The following shows just how destructive ice flows on the Rideau River can be: YouTube video, ‘Ice Flow Takes Out Dock – Rideau River’ Uploaded on Feb 23, 2009 ~ “An ice flow took out the end of our dock on the Rideau River near Ottawa, Ontario Canada. The dock was 78 feet long; it’s much shorter now! “
Posted in Art, Collage, Educational, Environment, events, Falls, History, Ice Blasting, Outdoor, River, Science and Technology, Video, Water
Tagged Almonte, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, Buckingham, Canada, Canadian Water Treatment magazine, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chelsea, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cumberland, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Fitzroy Harbour, Gatineau, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, Ice dam, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, Munster, Navan, North Gower, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, OTTAWA - City, Ottawa East, Ottawa River, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Richmond, Rideau Falls, Rideau River, Russell, Sarsfield, South Mountain, St. Albert, Steven Willard, tampering with ice, Vanier, Vars, Vernon, YouTube
FOR THOSE WHO LOVE THE PHILOSOPHY OF AMBIGUITY,
AS WELL AS THE IDIOSYNCRASIES OF ENGLISH:
Some chuckles for you that I received in a recent e-mail about just how peculiar our English language can be ~
One tequila, two tequila, three tequila…… Floor.
If man evolved from monkeys and apes, why do we still have monkeys and apes?
I went to a bookstore and asked the saleswoman, “where’s the self- help section?” she said if she told me, it would defeat the purpose.
What if there were no hypothetical questions?
Where do forest rangers go to “get away from it all?”
Would a fly without wings be called a walk?
Why do they lock gas station bathrooms? Are they afraid someone will break-in and clean them?
If a parsley farmer is sued, can they garnish his wages?
If a turtle doesn’t have a shell, is he homeless or naked?
Can vegetarians eat animal crackers?
Why do they put braille on the drive-through bank machines?
How do they get deer to cross the road only at those yellow road signs?
Why is there an expiration date on sour cream?
What was the best thing before sliced bread?
Does the little mermaid wear an algebra?(tricky)
If one synchronized swimmer drowns, do the rest drown too?
If you ate both pasta and antipasto, would you still be hungry?
Have a great weekend
from your friends at Rainsoft Ottawa,
Eternally Pure Water Systems, Inc.
Posted in Art, Collage, Comedy, Entertainment, Fun with words, Humour
Tagged Almonte, animal crackers, Aylmer, Barrhaven, Bearbrook, Blackburn Hamlet, book store, braille on ATM machines, Buckingham, Carleton Place, Carp, casselman, Chrysler, Clarence Creek, Cooking, Cumberland, deer crossing, English, English language, Eternally Pure Water Systems Inc. water treatment Rainsoft products in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, farmer, Fitzroy Harbour, fly, forest ranger, gas station washroom, Gatineau, Greely, Hammond, Hawkesbury, hypothetical question, IDIOSYNCRASIES OF ENGLISH, Kanata, Limoges, Luskville, Manotick, Marathon, Metcalfe, monkey, Munster, Navan, North Gower, Orleans, Osgoode, Ottawa, Ottawa East, Ottawa South, Ottawa West, parsley, PHILOSOPHY OF AMBIGUITY, Quyon, Rainsoft Ottawa water treatment products sales and service in Ottawa and all surrounding areas, Recreation, Richmond, road signs, Russell, Sarsfield, sliced bread, sour cream expiration date, South Mountain, St. Albert, synchronized swimmer, Traffic sign, turtule, Vanier, Vars, Vernon
The following excerpts are taken from Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine’s Feb. 2007 article – ‘The Basics of Ion Exchange and Water Chemistry’, by C. F. ‘Chubb’ Michaud, CEO and Technical Director of Systematix Company
Introduction: Look around: thousands of heavenly bodies in the night sky (comprising a mere fraction of one percent of the known universe), hundreds of cities, millions of houses filled with tens of millions of people. It is somewhat amazing to realize that all of it – every single thing is made up of only three components: electrons, protons and neutrons. Each grouping of these components forms a unique Structure we call an element. There are barely 100 naturally occurring elements here on Earth or in stellar space and their collective study is called chemistry. Each compound (water, air, steel, rubber) has its own chemistry. We can predict the properties of most things by studying the unique make up of their components. The chemistry of water is basic but, nonetheless, it is still chemistry. Some people shy away from trying to understand this subject because they feel it’s over their heads. Understanding the fundamentals of chemistry, however, is necessary in order to grasp the full breadth of how certain aspects of water filtration work – particularly ion exchange… The building blocks: In the worlds around us, there are barely 100 elements that occur naturally and, by definition, they are all separate and distinct from one another. Sodium, calcium, sulfur and oxygen are all elements. Elements are made up of a balanced number of positively and negatively charged particles called protons (+) and electrons (-), which, along with neutrons (which are neutral), form an atom of that element. The atom was first theorized by Democritus in the 5th century BC and derives from the Greek word for ‘un-cutable’. It is the smallest particle still identifiable as having the properties of the element. Modern science finally accepted this theory but not until the development of nuclear weapons in the 1940s…
Recap: By way of a quick summary, all matter is made up of elements (which are made up of electrons (–), protons (+) and neutrons (=). When elements combine, they form compounds. When compounds combine, they can form new compounds or mixtures. Acids and bases neutralize each other to form salts (and water). When salts are dissolved in water, they separate into cations (+) and anions (–) which carry charges (and are, therefore, attracted to other charged substances such as ion exchange resins). Water (H2O) does not ionize as H+ and O– –. Instead, it becomes H+ and OH– (called hydrogen and hydroxyl). These two ions are the backbone of the ion exchange demineralizer reaction (see Reaction 5). In reality, when salts are dissolved in water, they are no longer salts and they are no longer associated with their original partners. It is sort of like a junior high dance. It doesn’t matter who you came in with or with whom you go home, while you are on the dance floor, you’re on your own. Thus, if we add sodium carbonate and calcium chloride to water, we produce six different ions: Ca++ (calcium), Na+ (sodium), Cl– (chloride) and CO3 – (carbonate) plus the H+ and OH–. Each ion is free to associate with whatever it feels the most strongly attracted… Introduction to ion exchange: In the above case, the ‘unused’ part of the exchange reaction remains in the water and raises the total dissolved solids (TDS—that would be the Na and the Cl ions). But, what if we could anchor the reactive ions to a solid matrix so we didn’t have to filter them out and their partners would not go into solution to add to the TDS? That is exactly what ion exchange resin does. Ion exchange resins are plastic beads with a built-in reactive partner and an exchangeable ‘soluble’ partner. While the exchangeable partner is free to jump on and off the bead, the fixed reactive partner remains attached. In the case of a softening exchange resin, the partners are sodium (Na+ free to jump) an sulfonate (HSO3– which is fixed). When a calcium salt is introduced (as hard water), the calcium replaces the sodium on the bead and sodium replaces the calcium in the water (on a one-for-one equivalent basis) and there is no increase in TDS and no further filtration needed. The reason this reaction takes place is because the calcium from the hardness has a higher attraction (divalent) to the exchange resin than does the sodium (monovalent). This is known as ion selectivity and is the backbone of the ion exchange process. As shown by Reaction 5, certain elements or compounds in water can be made to undergo specific selec- tive reactions and these reactions are predictable to some degree according to the element’s family association in the Periodic Table. Divalent ions (those with a double positive charge) such as calcium and magnesium, will react with soap and cause ‘bathtub ring.’ They will also react with the carbonate ion to form scale in pipes and heaters. Although we could precipitate these salts with the addition of carbonate ions (see Reaction 6), we have no easy way to remove the resulting solid except in an industrial setting with large tankage. With ion exchange resins, only the exchangeable ion is soluble or free to move. The counter ion, which is the resin bead itself, is not. This makes the separation after the exchange very easy. In the case of a softener, the resin has an exchangeable Na+. The hardness (Ca++ and Mg++) combined with the resin forms a very strong bond. The water, minus the hardness, passes on through because the resin is retained in the exchange column. Sodium replaces the hardness on an equivalent basis. This means that it will take two sodium ions from the exchange bead to replace a single calcium or magnesium ion. However, on a ppm as CaCO3 basis, this is a one-for-one exchange with no change in TDS (more on this in Part 2)… Conclusion: The Periodic Table of the Elements places all elements into families that help us predict properties and determine similarities. We have shown that there is a preferred coupling of certain elements to form reactions (such as CaCO3 precipitation) that lead us to methods of removing those elements from water. This can be done either selectively (such as in softening) or completely (as in demineralization) utilizing ion exchange resins.
Common elements found in tap water
Aluminum, Calcium, Carbon, Chloride, Fluoride, Iron
Magnesium, Manganese, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Potassium
Silica, Sodium, Sulfur
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