Monthly Archives: July 2017

Water on the Moon

In a new study scientists at Brown University conclude that the moon may have a large amount of water in it. A significant resource as we plot to inhabit the moon and beyond.

Glass beads picked up during the Apollo Missions of the 70’s have been tested and shown to contain water. Until 2008 we thought the moon was waterless, but with the study of satellite data  large deposits of water are thought to be trapped in volcanic deposits across the moon’s surface. These would be lunar deposits untouched by the Apollo Missions. The data suggests the water is found in nearly all areas looked at..the Apollo samples were not a fluke. The interior of the moon may be wet.

At present the origin of the moon is thought to be debris from a large Mars sized object crashing into earth. The heat from such a collision should have vaporized all hydrogen needed to make water. With water being found the origin of the moon will need to be rethought.

A big consideration will be is the water extractable? Will we be able to mine it and use it in quantities that we allow us to supply future moon habitation? Not having to bring water from earth would certainly help in terms of space and weight.


Ground water pumping trying out great plains

Farmers in Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas , and the Texas panhandle produce about 1/6 of the world’s grain. The single greatest source of ground water the High Plains Aquifer provides the moisture for all that growth. However, a group of researchers has found that after more than 50 yrs of ground water pumping long segments of rivers are drying up and the collapse of large stream fishes. If pumping practices are not changed more rivers will be under pressure.

What is important to note that what is being seen here has implications for watersheds around the world. Irrigation accounts for 90% of the water use globally..local and regional aquifers are drying up. 


Essentially , over time we are drying up the land…at some point a wall will be hit. Future generations may lose the ability to work the land , grow crops, water the animals, lose trees and grass and so on. 

Reusable water bottles have more bacteria than dog toys.

Water bottles

Refilling your water bottle we think is a good way to save money, be eco- conscious , and help you be healthy. Nope, not exactly.

A new study has found that refillable water bottles can harbor more bacteria than your dog’s toys.

4 different water bottles were tested by athletes for 1 week. The average athlete’s water bottle contained 313,499 CFU( colony forming units of bacteria) The dogs toys tested had 2937 CFU.

The type of bottle plays a role as well. Slide top bottles had the worst rating with 933,340 CFU’s. Straw top bottles were best at 29.4 CFU. Screw top had some 160,000 CFU, while a squeeze top had 161,971 CFU.

Interestingly the slide top had the most bacteria by far , but the type of bacteria in the squeeze top was more harmful. Over 60% of the bacteria found on the water bottles could make you sick.

So what to choose…

The recommendation is the straw top bottle, with the fewest germs, most being non harmful and naturally occurring. The research also points to choosing stainless steel over plastic. Don’t let your water bottle remain half full and sit at the bottom of your gym bag or in the car for a period of time. Do wash your bottle in the dishwasher, or wash in a soapy, or bleach solution after each use.